AchillesGames

Taking part in card swimsuit – Wikipedia

Playing card suit - Wikipedia

Classes into which the playing cards of a deck are divided

In taking part in playing cards, a swimsuit is among the classes into which the playing cards of a deck are divided. Most frequently, every card bears one in every of a number of pips (symbols) exhibiting to which swimsuit it belongs; the swimsuit might alternatively or moreover be indicated by the colour printed on the cardboard. The rank for every card is decided by the variety of pips on it, besides on face playing cards. Rating signifies which playing cards inside a swimsuit are higher, greater or extra worthwhile than others, whereas there isn’t any order between the fits except outlined within the guidelines of a selected card sport. In a single deck, there’s precisely one card of any given rank in any given swimsuit. A deck might embody particular playing cards that belong to no swimsuit, usually known as jokers.

Historical past[edit]

Varied languages have completely different terminology for fits corresponding to colours, indicators, or seeds.

Fashionable Western taking part in playing cards are usually divided into two or three common suit-systems. The older Latin fits are subdivided into the Italian and Spanish suit-systems. The youthful Germanic fits are subdivided into the German and Swiss suit-systems. The French fits are a spinoff of the German fits however are usually thought-about a separate system by itself.[1][2]

Origin and growth of the Latin fits[edit]

The earliest card video games have been trick-taking video games and the invention of fits elevated the extent of technique and depth in these video games. A card of 1 swimsuit can’t beat a card from one other no matter its rank. The idea of fits predate taking part in playing cards and could be present in Chinese language cube and domino video games corresponding to Tien Gow.

Chinese language money-suited playing cards are believed to be the oldest ancestor to the Latin suit-system. The cash-suit system relies on denominations of forex: Cash, Strings of Cash, Myriads of Strings (or of cash), and Tens of Myriads. Outdated Chinese language cash had holes within the center to permit them to be strung collectively. A string of cash may simply be misinterpreted as a stick with these unfamiliar with them.

By then the Islamic world had unfold into Central Asia and had contacted China, and had adopted taking part in playing cards. The Muslims renamed the swimsuit of myriads as cups; this will likely have been because of seeing a Chinese language character for “myriad” () upside-down. The Chinese language numeral character for Ten () on the Tens of Myriads swimsuit might have impressed the Muslim swimsuit of swords.[3] One other clue linking these Chinese language, Muslim, and European playing cards are the rating of sure fits. In lots of early Chinese language video games like Madiao, the swimsuit of cash was in reverse order in order that the decrease ones beat the upper ones. Within the Indo-Persian sport of Ganjifa, half the fits have been additionally inverted, together with a swimsuit of cash. This was additionally true for the European video games of Tarot and Ombre. The inverting of fits had no objective with reference to gameplay however was an artifact from the earliest video games.

These Turko-Arabic playing cards, known as Kanjifa, used the fits cash, golf equipment, cups, and swords, however the golf equipment represented polo sticks; Europeans modified that swimsuit, as polo was an obscure sport to them.

The Latin fits are cash, golf equipment, cups, and swords. They’re the earliest suit-system in Europe, and have been adopted from the playing cards imported from Mamluk Egypt and Moorish Granada within the 1370s.

There are 4 kinds of Latin fits: Italian, Spanish, Portuguese,[c] and an extinct archaic sort.[4][5] The programs could be distinguished by the pips of their lengthy fits: swords and golf equipment.

  • Northern Italian swords are curved outward and the golf equipment look like batons. They intersect each other.
  • Southern Italian and Spanish swords are straight, and the golf equipment look like knobbly cudgels. They don’t cross one another (The widespread exception being the three of golf equipment).
  • Portuguese pips are just like the Spanish, however they intersect like Northern Italian ones. They often have dragons on the aces.[6] This technique lingers on solely within the Tarocco Siciliano and the Unsun Karuta of Japan.
  • The archaic system[d] is just like the Northern Italian one, however the swords are curved inward in order that they contact one another with out intersecting.[7][8]
  • Minchiate (a sport that used a 97-card deck) used a blended system of Italian golf equipment and Portuguese swords.

Regardless of a protracted historical past of commerce with China, Japan was launched to taking part in playing cards with the arrival of the Portuguese within the 1540s. Early regionally made playing cards, Karuta, have been similar to Portuguese decks. Rising restrictions by the Tokugawa shogunate on playing, card taking part in, and common international affect, resulted within the Hanafuda card deck that right this moment is used most frequently for fishing-type video games. The function of rank and swimsuit in organizing playing cards turned switched, so the hanafuda deck has 12 fits, every representing a month of the yr, and every swimsuit has Four playing cards, most frequently two regular, one Ribbon and one Particular (although August, November and December every differ uniquely from this conference).

Invention of the Germanic fits[edit]

Throughout the 15th-century, producers in German talking lands experimented with numerous new swimsuit programs to interchange the Latin fits. One early deck had 5 fits, the Latin ones with an additional swimsuit of shields.[9] The Swiss-Germans developed their very own fits of shields, roses, acorns, and bells round 1450.[10] As a substitute of roses and shields, the Germans settled with hearts and leaves round 1460. The French derived their fits of trèfles (clovers or golf equipment ), carreaux (tiles or diamonds ), cœurs (hearts ), and piques (pikes or spades ) from the German fits round 1480. French fits correspond carefully with German fits except the tiles with the bells however there’s one early French deck that had crescents as an alternative of tiles. The English names for the French fits of golf equipment and spades might merely have been carried over from the older Latin fits.[11]

Tarot[edit]

Starting round 1440 in northern Italy, some decks began to incorporate an additional swimsuit of (often) 21 numbered playing cards generally known as trionfi or trumps, to play tarot card video games.[12] At all times included in tarot decks is one card, the Idiot or Excuse, which can be a part of the trump swimsuit relying on the sport or area. These playing cards shouldn’t have pips or face playing cards like the opposite fits. Most tarot decks used for video games include French fits however Italian fits are nonetheless utilized in Piedmont, Bologna, and pockets of Switzerland. A number of Sicilian cities use the Portuguese-suited Tarocco Siciliano, the one deck of its sort left in Europe.

Tarot decks supposed for divination sometimes have the fits cups, pentacles (or cash), wands, and swords, together with the Main Arcana trump playing cards.[13][14]

Fits in video games with conventional decks[edit]

Trumps[edit]

In a big and widespread class of trick-taking video games, one swimsuit could also be designated in every deal to be trump and all playing cards of the trump swimsuit rank above all non-trump playing cards, and routinely prevail over them, shedding solely to the next trump if one is performed to the identical trick.[15] Non-trump fits are known as plain fits.[16]

Particular fits[edit]

Some video games deal with a number of fits as being particular or completely different from the others. A easy instance is Spades, which makes use of spades as a everlasting trump swimsuit. A much less easy instance is Hearts, which is a sort of level trick sport during which the article is to keep away from taking methods containing hearts. With typical guidelines for Hearts (guidelines differ barely) the queen of spades and the 2 of golf equipment (typically additionally the jack of diamonds) have particular results, with the outcome that each one 4 fits have completely different strategic worth. Tarot decks have a devoted trump swimsuit.

Chosen fits[edit]

Video games of the Karnöffel Group have between one and 4 chosen fits, typically known as chosen fits, that are typified by having a disrupted rating and playing cards with various privileges which can vary from full to none and which can rely upon the order they’re performed to the trick. For instance, chosen Sevens could also be unbeatable when led, however in any other case nugatory. In Swedish Bräus some playing cards are even unplayable. In video games the place the variety of chosen fits is lower than 4, the others are known as unchosen fits and rank of their pure order.

Rating of fits[edit]

Whist-style guidelines usually preclude the need of figuring out which of two playing cards of various fits has greater rank, as a result of a card performed on a card of a unique swimsuit both routinely wins or routinely loses relying on whether or not the brand new card is a trump. Nevertheless, some card video games additionally must outline relative swimsuit rank. An instance of that is in public sale video games corresponding to bridge, the place if one participant needs to bid to make some variety of coronary heart methods and one other to make the identical variety of diamond methods, there have to be a mechanism to find out which takes priority within the bidding order.

As there isn’t any actually commonplace approach to order the 4 fits, every sport that wants to take action has its personal conference; nevertheless, the ubiquity of bridge has gone some approach to make its ordering a de facto commonplace.[citation needed] Typical orderings of fits embody (from highest to lowest):

  • Bridge (for bidding and scoring) and sometimes poker: spades, hearts, diamonds, golf equipment; ‘notrump’ ranks above all of the fits[clarification needed]
  • Preferans: hearts, diamonds, golf equipment, spades. Solely used for bidding, and No Trump[clarification needed] is taken into account greater than hearts.
  • 5 Hundred: hearts, diamonds, golf equipment, spades (for bidding and scoring)
  • Ninety-nine: golf equipment, hearts, spades, diamonds (supposedly mnemonic as they’ve respectively 3, 2, 1, Zero lobes; see article for the way this scoring is used)
  • Skat: golf equipment, spades, hearts, diamonds; or acorns, leaves, hearts, bells (for bidding and to find out which Jack beats which in play)
  • Huge Two: spades, hearts, golf equipment, diamonds (Presidents reverses swimsuit energy: hearts, diamonds, spades, golf equipment)
  • Teen patti: Within the case the place two gamers have flushes with playing cards of the identical rank, the successful hand relies on swimsuit coloration as ranked by golf equipment, hearts, spades, diamonds.
  • 13: hearts, diamonds, golf equipment, spades.

Pairing or ignoring fits[edit]

The pairing of fits is a vestigial remnant of Ganjifa, a sport the place half the fits have been in reverse order, the decrease playing cards beating the upper. In Ganjifa, progressive fits have been known as “robust” whereas inverted fits have been known as “weak”. In Latin decks, the standard division is between the lengthy fits of swords and golf equipment and the spherical fits of cups and cash. This pairing could be seen in Ombre and Tarot card video games. German and Swiss fits lack pairing however French fits maintained them and this may be seen within the sport of Spoil 5.[17]

In some video games, corresponding to blackjack, fits are ignored. In different video games, corresponding to Canasta, solely the colour (purple or black) is related. In but others, corresponding to bridge, every of the swimsuit pairings are distinguished.

Essentially, there are 3 ways to divide 4 fits into pairs: by coloration, by rank and by form leading to six attainable swimsuit mixtures.

  • Colour is used to indicate the purple fits (hearts and diamonds) and the black fits (spades and golf equipment).
  • Rank is used to point the main (spades and hearts) versus minor (diamonds and golf equipment) fits.
  • Form is used to indicate the pointed (diamonds and spades, which visually have a pointy level uppermost) versus rounded (hearts and golf equipment) fits.

Within the occasion of widespread introduction of four-color decks, it has been steered that the purple/black distinction might be changed by pointed bottoms (hearts and diamonds visually have a pointy level downwards, whereas spades and golf equipment have a blunt stem).

4-color fits[edit]

Some decks, whereas utilizing the French fits, give every swimsuit a unique coloration to make the fits extra distinct from one another. In bridge, such decks are generally known as no-revoke decks, and the commonest colours are black spades, purple hearts, blue diamonds and inexperienced golf equipment, though up to now the diamond swimsuit often appeared in a golden yellow-orange. A pack often utilized in Germany makes use of inexperienced spades (corresponding to leaves), purple hearts, yellow diamonds (corresponding to bells) and black golf equipment (corresponding to acorns). It is a compromise deck devised to permit gamers from East Germany (who used German fits) and West Germany (who adopted the French fits) to be comfy with the identical deck when taking part in event Skat after the German reunification.[18]

There have been many makes an attempt at increasing the French deck to 5, six or much more fits the place the extra fits have the identical quantity and magnificence of playing cards because the French fits, however none have attained lasting reputation.[19]

Tarot packs sometimes have a further numbered trump swimsuit along with 4 conventional fits. They might be French-suited, such because the Tarot Nouveau or Industrie und Glück, or Italian-suited, such because the Tarot de Marseilles.

5-suit decks[edit]

Historic decks[edit]

5-suit bridge was a world fad lasting from the summer time of 1937 to the summer time of 1938 which led to plenty of decks produced for it in Austria, Britain, and the US.[20]

Quite a lot of the next out-of-print decks could also be discovered, particularly via on-line auctions.

Beforehand, 5 Star Taking part in Playing cards (poker sized) have been manufactured by 5 Star Video games, which had a gold coloured fifth swimsuit of 5 pointed stars. The courtroom playing cards are nearly similar to the diamond swimsuit in a Gemaco 5-Star deck. 5-suit decks utilizing the Star swimsuit are nonetheless in print in differing designs via distributors corresponding to Stardeck and Newton’s Novelties.

Cadaco manufactured a sport Tripoley Wild with a fifth swimsuit (and different Wild Playing cards) which include pips of all 4 commonplace fits (hearts, diamonds, spades, and golf equipment) on one card. That poker sized deck is just not offered individually, however as a part of boxed sport. 5 suited decks embody Cinco-Loco Poker Taking part in Playing cards, produced by the USA Taking part in Card Firm (not the US Taking part in Card Firm) which introduces a brand new swimsuit design. The Cinco-Loco fifth swimsuit makes use of an advanced sample, with coloration designs in a repeating round collection of pentagrams with 4 conventional fits in a 4 coloration sample, inside circles get more and more smaller, the fifth image within the circle of pentagrams is a yellow pentagram. There are then a complete of ten symbols in every of the outer and repeated in inside circles. The opposite fits use a four-color design.

Industrial decks[edit]

A commercially accessible five-suit poker (65-card) deck is Stardeck which introduces stars as a fifth swimsuit. Within the Stardeck playing cards, the fifth swimsuit is coloured a combination of black and purple. This fifth swimsuit could be counted as both a Purple or a Black swimsuit dependent upon the sport being performed. There are additionally 2 particular playing cards (or Jokers), 1 every of purple and black and proven with that color star within the nook, however no numeral or letter.

Property Taking part in Playing cards designed in 2006, is a recent five-suit (62-card) deck which provides a fifth swimsuit (property) known as Waves. Property playing cards signifies the 5 estates recognized as Waves (inexperienced), Hearts (purple), Diamonds (orange), Golf equipment (blue) and Spades (black). The three Royals are changed with two Household – Man and Lady. Jokers are changed with Imperials (Pope and President). Most video games could be performed, nevertheless they develop into extra concerned. 5 Card Poker historically has over 2 million attainable fingers with Royal Flush because the lowest likelihood. Property Poker has 5,461,512 attainable fingers with Household Flush because the lowest likelihood and new fingers corresponding to 5 of a Variety.

5° Dimension is an 80-card deck launched in 2007. The 5 fits are Hearts (purple), Spades (black), Golf equipment (inexperienced), Diamonds (yellow) and Stars (blue). Every swimsuit has 16 playing cards: 1 to 10, King, Queen, Jack, Princess, Ace (distinct from 1) and a Joker.

5 Crowns is one more five-suited deck just like that of 5° Dimension, The fits are Hearts (purple), Spades (black), Golf equipment (inexperienced), Diamonds (blue) and Stars (yellow) with no-revoke fits. The deck incorporates Three Jokers however doesn’t include aces or twos, making the cardboard depend per deck 58.

The Looney Labs product Pyramid Arcade features a five-suited deck of sq. playing cards for use within the sport Zark Metropolis. The fits are Hearts (purple), Spades (purple), Golf equipment (inexperienced), Diamonds (cyan) and Stars (yellow), matching the colours and symbols on the included “Colour die”. Every swimsuit options the everyday 13 playing cards, making a deck of 65 playing cards.

Six-suit decks[edit]

Historic decks[edit]

In 1895, Hiram Jones of the US created one of many earliest decks with additional fits known as Worldwide Taking part in Playing cards. Along with the 4 commonplace French fits, it had two further fits, purple crosses and black bullets. (The bullets of that interval have been spherical, therefore the pip was a circle.)[21]

Out of print is the Nu-Dek Sextet Bridge deck (copyright Ralph E. Peterson 1964, 1966), manufactured for Sextet Contract Bridge Associates (“SECOBRA”) by the US Taking part in Card Firm. Two blue fits are added to the usual 4: Rackets being a pair of crossed tennis rackets, and Wheels from a ship’s steering wheel design.

One other out of print six-suited (78-card) deck of poker sized taking part in playing cards is the Empire Deck, launched in 1990. It has three purple fits and three black fits, introducing crowns in purple and anchors in black as within the cube sport Crown and Anchor.

Industrial decks[edit]

Deck6 by SHP Video games is a six-suited deck with three purple fits (hearts, diamonds, shields), three black fits (golf equipment, spades, cups) and three jokers (whole 81 playing cards). [22]

The K6T deck is a six-suited (120-card) deck of poker sized taking part in playing cards. The standard fits are coloured (inexperienced golf equipment and orange diamonds) and are accomplished with blue moons and purple stars. Every swimsuit has 20 playing cards ranked as 0(=Joker)-1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9-10-11-12-J-C(Cavalier for knight)-B(Bishop)-T(Tower for rook)-Q-Okay-Ace. The courts are represented by chess symbols. Ranks 13 to 18, making 26 ranks in whole, are typically added.

Eight-suit decks[edit]

Industrial decks[edit]

Eight Fits Taking part in Playing cards, (104-card) deck of poker sized taking part in playing cards. conceived within the late 1970s and manufactured via BrienmarK Merchandise Inc., provides purple Moons, black Stars, purple four-leaved Clovers and black Tears. This deck was initially created to permit extra gamers in a sport of euchre.

The Fats Pack provides purple Roses, black Axes, black Tridents and purple Doves to the usual deck.

Toss™ Double Deluxe Decks consists of the standard French fits plus gold Crosses and Oracles, blue Castles and Shields, 5 Jokers (one for every coloration plus a Boss Joker) and two Null playing cards.

Different suited decks[edit]

Suited-and-ranked decks[edit]

Numerous video games are based mostly round a deck during which every card has a rank and a swimsuit (often represented by a coloration), and for every swimsuit there’s precisely one card having every rank, although in lots of instances the deck has numerous particular playing cards as properly. Examples embody Mü und Mehr, Misplaced Cities, DUO, Sticheln, Rage, Schotten Totten, UNO, Part 10, Oh-No!, Skip-Bo, Roodles, and Rook.

Different fashionable decks[edit]

Decks for some video games are divided into fits, however in any other case bear little relation to conventional video games. An instance could be the board sport Taj Mahal, during which every card has one in every of 4 background colours, the rule being that each one the playing cards performed by a single participant in a single spherical have to be the identical coloration. The collection of playing cards within the deck of every coloration is roughly the identical and the participant’s alternative of which coloration to make use of is guided by the contents of their explicit hand.

Within the trick-taking card sport Flaschenteufel (“The Bottle Imp”), all playing cards are a part of a single sequence ranked from 1 to 37 however cut up into three fits relying on its rank. gamers should observe the swimsuit led, but when they’re void in that swimsuit they could play a card of one other swimsuit and this will nonetheless win the trick if its rank is excessive sufficient. For that reason each card within the deck has a unique quantity to stop ties. An additional strategic aspect is launched since one swimsuit incorporates principally low-ranking playing cards and one other, principally high-ranking playing cards.

Whereas playing cards in a conventional deck have two classifications—swimsuit and rank—and every mixture is represented by one card, giving for instance Four fits × 13 ranks = 52 playing cards, every card in a Set deck has 4 classifications every into one in every of three classes, giving a complete of 3 × 3 × 3 × 3 = 81 playing cards. Any one in every of these 4 classifications might be thought-about a swimsuit, however this isn’t actually enlightening when it comes to the construction of the sport.

Makes use of of taking part in card swimsuit symbols[edit]

Card swimsuit symbols happen in locations outdoors card taking part in:

Character encodings[edit]

In pc and different digital media, swimsuit symbols could be represented with character encoding, notably within the ISO and Unicode requirements, or with Net commonplace (SGML’s named entity syntax):

UTF code: U+2660 (9824dec) U+2665 (9829dec) U+2666 (9830dec) U+2663 (9827dec)
Image:
Title: Black Spade Go well with Black Coronary heart Go well with Black Diamond Go well with Black Membership Go well with
Entity: &golf equipment;
UTF code: U+2664 (9828dec) U+2661 (9825dec) U+2662 (9826dec) U+2667 (9831dec)
Image:
Title: White Spade Go well with White Coronary heart Go well with White Diamond Go well with White Membership Go well with
UTF codes are expressed by the Unicode code level “U+hexadecimal quantity” syntax, and as subscript the respective decimal quantity.
Images are expressed right here as they’re within the internet browser’s HTML renderization.
Title is the formal identify adopted in the usual specs.

Unicode is essentially the most continuously used encoding commonplace, and fits are within the Miscellaneous Symbols Block (2600–26FF) of the Unicode.

Metaphorical makes use of[edit]

In some card video games the cardboard fits have a dominance order, for instance: membership (lowest) – diamond – coronary heart – spade (highest). That led to in spades getting used to imply greater than anticipated, in abundance, very a lot.[24]

In European video games, the order is usually completely different: diamond or bell (lowest) – coronary heart – spade or leaf – membership or acorn (highest). See, for instance, the sport of Bruus.

Different expressions drawn from bridge and comparable video games embody robust swimsuit (any space of private energy) and to observe swimsuit (to mimic one other’s actions).

See additionally[edit]

  1. ^ Pattern pips come from the Venetian sample
  2. ^ Pattern pips come from the Castilian sample
  3. ^ “Portuguese” is barely deceptive nomenclature. The swimsuit system might have originated in Catalonia and unfold out via the western Mediterranean earlier than being changed by the “Spanish” system. The affiliation with Portugal comes from the truth that they continued to make use of it till fully going over to French fits at first of the 20th century.
  4. ^ In all probability related to the Duchy of Ferrara and sure deserted after the 15th century.
  5. ^ The French swimsuit system is usually thought-about to be separate from the Germans and Swiss because of its completely different set of face playing cards. Nevertheless, when evaluating solely the pips, it’s Germanic.
  6. ^ There doesn’t look like a single common system of correspondences between Swiss-German and French fits. Playing cards combining the 2 swimsuit programs are manufactured in numerous variations with completely different mixtures of fits.
  7. ^ Swiss-German: Rosen
  8. ^ Swiss-German: Schellen
  9. ^ Swiss-German: Eichel
  10. ^ Swiss-German: Schilten
  11. ^ German: Herz (coronary heart), Rot (purple), Hungarian: Piros (purple), Czech: Srdce (coronary heart), Červené (purple)
  12. ^ German: Schellen (bells), Hungarian: Tök (pumpkin), Czech: Kule (balls)
  13. ^ German: Eichel (acorn), Ecker (beechnut), Hungarian: Makk (acorn), Czech: Žaludy (acorns)
  14. ^ German: Laub (leaves), Grün (inexperienced), Gras (grass), Blatt (leaf) Hungarian: Zöld (inexperienced), Czech: Listy (leaves), Zelené (inexperienced)
  15. ^ The form of the golf equipment image is believed to be an adaptation of the German swimsuit of acorns. Golf equipment are often known as clovers, flowers and crosses. The French identify for the swimsuit is trèfles that means clovers, the Italian identify for the swimsuit is fiori that means flowers and the German identify for the swimsuit is Kreuz that means cross.
  16. ^ Within the Germanic international locations the spade was the image related to the blade of a spade. The English time period spade initially didn’t seek advice from the device however was derived from the Spanish phrase espada that means sword from the Spanish swimsuit. These symbols have been later modified to resemble the digging device as an alternative to keep away from confusion. In German and Dutch the swimsuit is alternatively named Schippen and schoppen respectively, that means shovels.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Parlett, David (1990). The Oxford Information to Card Video games. Oxford: Oxford College Press. pp. 27–34.
  2. ^ McLeod, John. Video games categorised by sort of playing cards or tiles used at pagat.com. Retrieved 24 March 2017.
  3. ^ Pollett, Andrea (2002). “Tuman, or the Ten Thousand Cups of the Mamluk Playing cards”. The Taking part in-Card. 31 (1): 34–41.
  4. ^ Mann, Sylvia (1974). “A Go well with-System Subdivided”. The Taking part in-Card. 3 (1): 51.
  5. ^ McLeod, John. Video games performed with Latin suited playing cards at pagat.com. Retrieved 10 November 2015.
  6. ^ Wintle, Adam. Portuguese Taking part in Playing cards on the World of Taking part in Playing cards. Retrieved 26 March 2017.
  7. ^ Dummett, Michael (1990–1991). “A Survey of ‘Archaic’ Italian Playing cards”. The Taking part in-Card. 19 (2, 4): 43–51, 128–131.
  8. ^ Gjerde, Tor. Italian renaissance woodcut taking part in playing cards at outdated.no. Retrieved 26 March 2017.
  9. ^ Meyer, Huck. Liechtenstein’sches Spiel at trionfi.com. Retrieved 24 March 2017.
  10. ^ Dummett, Michael (1980). The Sport of Tarot. London: Duckworth. pp. 14–16.
  11. ^ Berry, John (1999). “French fits and English names”. The Taking part in-Card. 28 (2): 84–89.
  12. ^ McLeod, John. Card Video games: Tarot Video games at pagat.com. Retrieved 10 November 2015.
  13. ^ Renée, Janina (2001). Tarot for a New Technology (First ed.). St. Paul, Minnesota: Llewellyn Publications. p. 5. ISBN 0738701602. Within the system that’s mostly used, these fits are designated as Wands, Swords, Cups, and Pentacles.
  14. ^ Smith, Caroline; Astrop, John (1999). The Elemental Tarot. New York: St. Martin’s Griffin. p. 7. ISBN 0312241399. The Minor Arcana includes fifty-six playing cards divided into 4 fits, which in most decks are swords, wands, cups, and cash or pentacles.
  15. ^ McLeod, John. Mechanics of Card Video games at pagat.com. Retrieved 24 March 2017.
  16. ^ Parlett, David. The Language of Playing cards at David Parlett Connoisseur Video games. Retrieved 24 March 2017.
  17. ^ Leyden, Rudolf von; Dummett, Michael (1982). Ganjifa, The Taking part in Playing cards of India. London: Victoria and Albert Museum. pp. 52–53.
  18. ^ “Kartenbilder” (in German). deutscherskatverband.de. 17 January 2012. Retrieved 12 December 2012.
  19. ^ McLeod, John. Packs with additional fits at pagat.com. Retrieved 1 February 2018.
  20. ^ Wintle, Simon. 5 Go well with Bridge on the World of Taking part in Playing cards. Retrieved 1 February 2018.
  21. ^ Dawson, Tom; Dawson, Judy (2014). The Hochman Encyclopedia of American Taking part in Playing cards – Quantity 4 (2nd ed.). New York: Conjuring Arts Analysis Middle. pp. 268–274.
  22. ^ Davis, C Scott. Deck6, SHP Video games, The Sport Crafter, Three Aug 2016, https://www.thegamecrafter.com/video games/deck6. Retrieved Eight July 2020.
  23. ^ Zaloga, Steven J (2007). US Airborne Divisions within the ETO 1944-45. Osprey Publishing. p. 58.
  24. ^ Martin, Gary. “In spades’ – the that means and origin of this phrase”. Retrieved 24 March 2017.


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