Racing recreation – Wikipedia

Racing game - Wikipedia

Online game style

Racing video games are a online game style through which the participant participates in a racing competitors with any kind of land, water, air, or house automobiles. They might be primarily based on something from real-world racing leagues to fantastical settings. They’re distributed alongside a spectrum between simulations and simplified arcade-style racing video games. Go-kart racing video games emerged within the 1990s as a well-liked sub-genre of the latter. Racing video games may fall below the class of sports activities video games.

Historical past[edit]


In 1973, Atari, Inc. launched Area Race, an arcade recreation the place gamers management spaceships that race towards opposing ships, whereas avoiding comets and meteors. It’s a aggressive two-player recreation with black and white graphics and managed with a two-way joystick.[1]

The next yr, Atari launched the primary driving online game within the arcades, Gran Trak 10, which presents an overhead single-screen view of the monitor in low decision white-on-black graphics.[2][3] Later that very same yr, Taito launched Velocity Race designed by Tomohiro Nishikado (of Area Invaders fame), through which the participant drives down a straight monitor dodging different vehicles.[4][5] The sport was re-branded as Wheels by Halfway Video games for launch in the USA and was influential on later racing video games.[6]

In 1976, Sega launched Moto-Cross,[7] re-branded as Fonz within the US, as a tie-in for the favored sitcom Joyful Days.[8] The sport featured a three-dimensional perspective view,[9] in addition to haptic suggestions, which brought on the bike handlebars to vibrate throughout a collision with one other car.[10] In October 1976, Atari’s Evening Driver offered a first-person view.[11] Thought-about the primary “scandalous” arcade recreation,[12]Exidy’s Dying Race (1976) was extensively criticized within the media for its violent content material, which solely served to considerably enhance its reputation.[13]

In 1977, Atari launched Tremendous Bug, a racing recreation traditionally vital as “the primary recreation to function a scrolling playfield” in a number of instructions.[14] Sega launched Twin Course T.T., a two-player motorcycle racing recreation.[15] One other notable recreation from the 1970s was The Driver, a racing-action recreation launched by Kasco (Kansai Seiki Seisakusho Co.) that used 16 mm movie to undertaking full movement video on display, although its gameplay had restricted interplay, requiring the participant to match their steering wheel, gasoline pedal and brakes with actions proven on display, very similar to the sequences in later LaserDisc video games.[16]

1979 additionally noticed the discharge of Vectorbeam’s Velocity Freak, a 3D vector racing recreation, which Killer Checklist of Videogames calls “very spectacular and forward of their time”.[17]


In 1980, Namco’s overhead-view driving recreation Rally-X was the primary recreation to with background music,[18] and allowed scrolling in a number of instructions, each vertical and horizontal.[19] It additionally makes use of a radar, to point out the rally automotive’s location on the map.[20]Alpine Ski, launched by Taito in 1981, was a winter sports activities recreation, a vertical-scrolling racing recreation that concerned maneuvering a skier by way of a downhill ski course, a slalom racing course, and a ski leaping competitors.[21]Turbo, launched by Sega in 1981, was the primary racing recreation to make use of sprite scaling with full-color graphics.[22]

One of the influential racing video games was launched in 1982: Pole Place, developed by Namco and printed by Atari in North America. It was the primary recreation to be primarily based on an actual racing circuit, and the primary to with a qualifying lap, the place the participant wants to finish a time trial earlier than they will compete in Grand Prix races. Whereas not the primary third-person racing recreation (it was predated by Sega’s Turbo), Pole Place established the conventions of the style and its success impressed quite a few imitators.[23] In keeping with Digital Video games, for the primary time within the amusement parlors, a first-person racing recreation offers the next reward for passing vehicles and ending among the many leaders fairly than simply for retaining all 4 wheels on the highway”.[24] In keeping with IGN, it was “the primary racing recreation primarily based on a real-world racing circuit (Fuji Speedway in Japan)” and “launched checkpoints,” and that its success, as “the highest-grossing arcade recreation in North America in 1983, cemented the style in place for many years to return and impressed a horde of different racing video games”.[25]

In 1983, Kaneko produced Curler Aces, a curler skating racer.[26]

In 1984, a number of LaserDisc racing video games have been launched, together with Sega’s GP World[27] and Taito’s Laser Grand Prix[28] with live-action footage, Common’s Prime Gear that includes 3D animated race automotive driving,[29] and Taito’s Cosmos Circuit, that includes animated futuristic racing.[30] Taito additionally launched Kick Begin, Buggy Problem, a dust monitor racing recreation that includes a buggy.[31]Irem’s The Battle-Highway, a car fight racing recreation with branching paths and as much as 32 potential routes.[32]

Racing video games typically are inclined to drift towards the arcade aspect of actuality, primarily because of {hardware} limitations, particularly within the 1980s and 1990s. It’s, nonetheless, unfaithful to say that there have been no video games thought-about simulations of their time. In 1984, Geoff Crammond, who later developed the Grandprix collection (Recognized collectively as GPX to its fanbase), produced what is taken into account the primary try at a racing simulator on a house system, REVS, launched for the BBC Microcomputer. The sport supplied an unofficial (and therefore with no official staff or driver names related to the collection) recreation of British Method 3. The {hardware} capabilities restricted the depth of the simulation and restricted it (initially) to at least one monitor, but it surely supplied a semi-realistic driving expertise with extra element than most different racing video games on the time.[33]

In 1985, Sega launched Dangle-On, a Grand Prix fashion motorcycle racer.[34] It used drive suggestions know-how and was additionally one of many first arcade video games to make use of 16-bit graphics and Sega’s “Tremendous Scaler” know-how that allowed pseudo-3D sprite-scaling at excessive body charges.[22]

In 1986, Durell launched Turbo Esprit, which had an official Lotus license, and dealing automotive indicator lights. Additionally in 1986, Sega produced Out Run, probably the most graphically spectacular video games of its time. It used two Motorola 68000 CPUs for its 2D sprite-based driving engine, and it grew to become an immediate basic that spawned many sequels. It was notable for giving the participant the non-linear selection of which path to take by way of the sport and the selection of soundtrack to hearken to whereas driving,[35] represented as radio stations. The sport has as much as 5 endings relying on the route taken, and each was an ending sequence fairly than a easy “Congratulations” as was widespread in recreation endings on the time.[36]

In 1987, Sq. launched Rad Racer, one of many first stereoscopic 3D video games.[37] In the identical yr, Atari produced RoadBlasters, a driving recreation that additionally concerned a little bit of capturing.

CBS Sony launched Paris-Dakar Rally Particular, an imaginative racing recreation with platformer and action-adventure components, that includes Dakar Rally vehicles that might fireplace bullets, the motive force capable of exit the automotive and go exploring to decrease a bridge or bypass different obstacles, underwater driving sections, and at instances having keep away from a fleet of tanks and fighter jets.[38] That very same yr, Namco launched Profitable Run.[39]

In 1989, Atari launched Arduous Drivin’, one other arcade driving recreation that used 3D polygonal graphics. It makes use of drive suggestions, the place the wheel fights the participant throughout aggressive turns, and a crash replay digital camera view. That very same yr, the now defunct Papyrus Design Group produced their first try at a racing simulator, the critically acclaimed Indianapolis 500: The Simulation, designed by David Kaemmer and Omar Khudari. The sport is mostly thought to be the primary true auto racing simulation on a private laptop. Precisely replicating the 1989 Indianapolis 500 grid, it supplied superior 3D graphics for its time, setup choices, automotive failures and dealing with. Not like most different racing video games on the time, Indianapolis 500 tried to simulate real looking physics and telemetry, reminiscent of its portrayal of the connection between the 4 contact patches and the pavement, in addition to the lack of grip when making a high-speed flip, forcing the participant to undertake a correct racing line and plausible throttle-to-brake interplay. It features a storage facility to permit gamers to enact modifications to their car, together with changes to the tires, shocks and wings.[33] The harm modelling, whereas not correct by as we speak’s requirements, was able to producing some spectacular and entertaining pile-ups.


Crammond’s Method One Grand Prix in 1992 grew to become the brand new champion of sim racing, till the discharge of Papyrus’ IndyCar Racing the next yr.[40]Method One Grand Prix boasted element that was unparalleled for a pc recreation on the time in addition to a full recreation of the drivers, vehicles and circuits of the 1991 Method One World Championship. Nevertheless, the U.S. model (often called World Circuit) was not granted an official license by the FIA, so groups and drivers have been renamed (although all may very well be modified again to their actual names utilizing the Driver/Group choice menu): Ayrton Senna grew to become “Carlos Sanchez”, for instance.

On the opposite finish of the spectrum, Sega produced Virtua Racing in 1992. Whereas not the primary arcade racing recreation with 3D graphics (it was predated by Profitable Run, Arduous Drivin’ and Stunts), it was capable of mix the very best options of video games on the time, together with multiplayer machine linking and clear 3D graphics to supply a recreation that was above and past the arcade market customary of its time, laying the foundations for subsequent 3D racing video games.[41]

In the identical yr, Nintendo launched Tremendous Mario Kart, but it surely was recognized that it was pseudo-3D racing. Right here it has gadgets to have an effect on gamers from racing and the referee, Lakitu will provide help to out to know the foundations and rescue racers from falling down.[42]

In 1993, Namco launched Ridge Racer, and thus started the polygonal struggle of driving video games. Sega later launched Daytona USA, one of many first video games to function filtered, texture-mapped polygons.[22] The next yr, Digital Arts produced The Want for Velocity, which might later spawn the world’s most profitable racing recreation collection and probably the most profitable recreation collection. In the identical yr, Halfway launched Crusin’ USA.

In 1995, Sega Rally Championship launched rally racing and featured cooperative gameplay alongside the standard aggressive multiplayer.[43]Sega Rally was additionally the primary to function driving on totally different surfaces (together with asphalt, gravel, and dust) with totally different friction properties and the automotive’s dealing with altering accordingly, making it an necessary milestone within the style.[44]

In 1996, Nintendo created a 3D recreation referred to as Mario Kart 64, a sequel to Tremendous Mario Kart and has an motion in order that Lakitu have to both reverse, or rev your engines to Rocket Begin. Lakitu can even rescue gamers. Not like Sega Rally Championship, Mario Kart 64 focus just some racing and the gadgets used.[42]

Atari did not be part of the 3D craze till 1997, when it launched San Francisco Rush.

In 1997, Gran Turismo was launched for the PlayStation, after being in manufacturing for 5 years since 1992.[45] It was thought-about essentially the most real looking racing simulation recreation in its time,[46] mixed with playability, enabling gamers of all talent ranges to play. It supplied a wealth of meticulous tuning choices and launched an open-ended profession mode the place gamers needed to undertake driving checks to accumulate driving licenses, earn their approach into races and select their very own profession path.[46] The Gran Turismo collection has since turn out to be the second-most profitable racing recreation franchise of all time, promoting over 80 million models worldwide as of April 2018.[47]

By 1997, the everyday PC was able to matching an arcade machine when it comes to graphical high quality, primarily as a result of introduction of first era 3D accelerators reminiscent of 3DFX Voodoo. The sooner CPUs have been able to simulating more and more real looking physics, automotive management, and graphics.

Colin McRae Rally was launched in 1998 to the PC world, and was a profitable semi-simulation of the world of rally driving, beforehand solely accessible within the much less critical Sega Rally Championship. Motorhead, a PC recreation, was later tailored again to arcade. In the identical yr, Sega releases Daytona USA 2 (Battle On The Edge and Energy Version), which is likely one of the first racing video games to function real looking crashes and graphics.

1999 launched Crash Group Racing, a kart racing recreation that includes the characters from Crash Bandicoot. It was praised for its controls and programs. Crash Bandicoor and its racing collection has continued, with the latest recreation being Crash Group Racing: Nitro Fueled. (June 2019) 1999 additionally marked a change of video games into extra “free type” worlds. Midtown Insanity for the PC permits the participant to discover a simplified model of town of Chicago utilizing quite a lot of automobiles and any path that they need. Within the arcade world, Sega launched Loopy Taxi, a sandbox racing recreation the place you’re a taxi driver that wanted to get the shopper to the vacation spot within the shortest period of time.[48] An identical recreation additionally from Sega is Emergency Name Ambulance, with nearly the identical gameplay (choose up affected person, drop off at hospital, as quick as potential). Video games have gotten increasingly more real looking visually. Some arcade video games at the moment are that includes Three screens to supply a encompass view.


In 2000, Angel Studios (now Rockstar San Diego) launched the primary free-roaming, or the previous “free type”, racing recreation on online game consoles and handheld recreation consoles with Midnight Membership: Road Racing which launched on the PlayStation 2 and Sport Boy Advance. The sport allowed the participant to drive wherever round digital recreations of London and New York. As a substitute of utilizing enclosed tracks for races, the sport makes use of varied checkpoints on the free roam map because the pathway of the race, giving the participant the choice to take varied shortcuts or some other path to the checkpoints of the race.
In 2001 Namco launched Wangan Midnight to the arcade and later launched an improve referred to as Wangan Midnight R. Wangan Midnight R was additionally ported to the PlayStation 2 by Genki as simply Wangan Midnight.

In 2003, Rockstar San Diego’s Midnight Membership II was the primary racing recreation to function each playable vehicles and playable bikes. Namco launched a form of sequel to Wangan Midnight R referred to as Wangan Midnight Most Tune.

There’s a vast gamut of driving video games starting from easy action-arcade racers like Mario Kart: Double Sprint (for GameCube) and Nicktoon Racers to ultra-realistic simulators like Grand Prix Legends, iRacing, Digital Grand Prix 3, Reside for Velocity, NetKar Professional, GT Legends, GTR2, rFactor, X Motor Racing and iPad 3D racer Exhilarace — and every little thing in between.
ref>Gran Turismo’ Franchise Gross sales Surpasses 80 Million – Gran Turismo® Sport”.


Arcade-style racing[edit]

Arcade-style racing video games put enjoyable and a fast-paced expertise above all else, as vehicles often compete in distinctive methods. A key function of arcade-style racers that particularly distinguishes them from simulation racers is their much more liberal physics. Whereas in actual racing (and subsequently, the simulation equivalents) the motive force should scale back their velocity considerably to take most turns, arcade-style racing video games typically encourage the participant to “powerslide” the automotive to permit the participant to maintain up their velocity by drifting by way of a flip. Collisions with different racers, monitor obstacles, or visitors automobiles is often way more exaggerated than simulation racers as properly. For essentially the most half, arcade-style racers merely take away the precision and rigor required from the simulation expertise and focus strictly on the racing factor itself. They typically license actual vehicles and leagues, however are equally open to extra unique settings and automobiles. Races happen on highways, windy roads, or in cities; they are often multiple-lap circuits or point-to-point sprints, with one or a number of paths generally with checkpoints, or different kinds of competitors, like demolition derby, leaping, or testing driving abilities. Standard arcade-style racers embrace the Want for Velocity collection, the Ridge Racer collection, the Daytona USA collection, the Sega Rally collection, the Rush collection, the Cruis’n collection, the Midnight Membership collection, the Burnout collection, the Out Run and MotorStorm collection.

Throughout the mid-late 2000s there was a development of recent avenue racing; imitating the import scene, one can tune sport compacts and sports activities vehicles and race them on the streets. Probably the most extensively recognized ones are the Midnight Membership 3: DUB Version and the Midnight Membership collection, sure entries within the Want for Velocity collection, Preliminary D collection, and the Juiced collection.

Some arcade-style racing video games enhance the competitors between racers by including weapons that can be utilized towards opponents to gradual them down or in any other case impede their progress to allow them to be handed. It is a staple function in kart racing video games such because the Mario Kart collection, however this sort of recreation mechanic additionally seems in customary, car-based racing video games as properly. Weapons can vary from projectile assaults to traps in addition to non-combative gadgets like velocity boosts. Weapon-based racing video games embrace video games reminiscent of Full Auto, Rumble Racing, and Blur.

Simulation racing[edit]

Simulation fashion racing video games attempt to convincingly replicate the dealing with of an car. They typically license actual vehicles or racing leagues, however will generally use fantasy vehicles constructed to resemble actual ones if unable to accumulate an official license for them. Vehicular habits physics are a key issue within the expertise. The trials of being knowledgeable race driver are often additionally included (reminiscent of having to take care of a automotive’s tire situation and gas stage). Correct cornering approach and precision racing maneuvers (reminiscent of path braking) are given precedence within the simulation racing video games.

Though these racing simulators are particularly constructed for individuals with a excessive grade of driving talent, it isn’t unusual to seek out aids that may be enabled from the sport menu. The commonest aids are traction management (TC), anti-lock brakes (ABS), steering help, harm resistance, clutch help and computerized gear modifications.

A few of these racing simulators are customizable, as recreation followers have decoded the tracks, vehicles and executable recordsdata. Web communities have grown across the simulators thought to be essentially the most real looking and plenty of web sites host web championships. A few of these racing simulators consist in Forza Motorsport, Gran Turismo, Assetto Corsa, Mission Automobiles and plenty of extra.[49]

Kart racing[edit]

Kart racing video games have simplified driving mechanics whereas including obstacles, uncommon monitor designs and varied motion components.[50] Kart racers are additionally recognized to forged characters recognized from varied platform video games or cartoon tv collection because the drivers of “wacky” automobiles.[51] Kart racing video games are a extra arcade-like expertise than different racing video games and often provide modes through which participant characters can shoot projectiles at each other or gather power-ups.[51][52] Usually, in such video games, automobiles transfer extra alike go-karts, missing something alongside the strains of a gear stick and clutch pedal.[50][53]

Crashing Race (1976) was the primary recreation to incorporate automotive fight. The sport was additionally slower than different racing video games of the time because of {hardware} limitations, prompting the builders to make use of a go-kart theme for the sport. Since then, over 50 kart racing video games have been launched, that includes characters from Nicktoons to Mario.[54]

See additionally[edit]


  1. ^ Area Race on the Killer Checklist of Videogames
  2. ^ “The Grandfather of Racing Video games”. USGamer. Gamer Community. 2015-07-24. Archived from the unique on 2016-03-05. Retrieved 2017-03-17.
  3. ^ Macy, Seth (2015-03-27). “The Historical past of Racing Video games”. IGN. Archived from the unique on 2016-08-18. Retrieved 2017-03-17.
  4. ^ Chris Kohler (2005), Energy-up: how Japanese video video games gave the world an additional life, p. 16, BradyGames, ISBN 978-0-7440-0424-3
  5. ^ “Interview: ‘Area Invaders’ creator Tomohiro Nishikado”. USA As we speak. Might 6, 2009. Retrieved 2011-03-22.
  6. ^ Invoice Loguidice & Matt Barton (2009), Classic video games: an insider have a look at the historical past of Grand Theft Auto, Tremendous Mario, and essentially the most influential video games of all time, p. 197, Focal Press, ISBN 978-0-240-81146-8
  7. ^ Moto-Cross on the Killer Checklist of Videogames
  8. ^ Fonz on the Killer Checklist of Videogames
  9. ^ “Video Sport Flyers: Fonz, Sega”. The Arcade Flyer Archive. Killer Checklist of Videogames. Retrieved November 15, 2018.
  10. ^ Mark J. P. Wolf (2008), The online game explosion: a historical past from PONG to Ps and past, p. 39, ABC-CLIO, ISBN 978-0-313-33868-7
  11. ^ “Evening Driver arcade online game by Atari, Inc. (1976)”. 2014-10-13. Retrieved 2016-05-13.
  12. ^ Plunkett, Luke (28 February 2012). “Dying Race, the World’s First Scandalous Video Sport”. Kotaku. Gizmodo Media Group. Retrieved 19 October 2018.
  13. ^ Kohler, Chris (30 October 2007). “How Protests In opposition to Video games Trigger Them To Promote Extra Copies”. WIRED. Condé Nast. Retrieved 19 October 2018.
  14. ^ “Tremendous Bug – Overview – allgame”. allgame. AllGame. 14 November 2014. Archived from the unique on 14 November 2014. Retrieved 12 October 2018.
  15. ^ Twin Course T.T. on the Killer Checklist of Videogames
  16. ^ The Driver on the Killer Checklist of Videogames
  17. ^ Velocity Freak on the Killer Checklist of Videogames
  18. ^ “Archived copy”. Archived from the unique on June 15, 2011. Retrieved October 24, 2011.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (hyperlink)
  19. ^ “Archived copy”. Archived from the unique on 2011-06-15. Retrieved April 27, 2011.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (hyperlink)
  20. ^ Rally-X on the Killer Checklist of Videogames
  21. ^ Alpine Ski on the Killer Checklist of Videogames
  22. ^ a b c Fahs, Travis (2009-04-21). “IGN Presents the Historical past of SEGA”. IGN. Retrieved 2020-06-07.
  23. ^ Loguidice, Invoice; Barton, Matt (2009), Classic Video games: An Insider Have a look at the Historical past of Grand Theft Auto, Tremendous Mario, and the Most Influential Video games of All Time, Focal Press, pp. 195–6, ISBN 0-240-81146-1
  24. ^ “Coin-Op Sport of the 12 months”. Digital Video games. 2 (23): 77. January 1984. Retrieved 11 February 2012.
  25. ^ “The Prime 10 Most Influential Racing Video games Ever – IGN – Web page 2”. 2015-04-03. Retrieved 2016-05-13.
  26. ^ Combating Curler on the Killer Checklist of Videogames
  27. ^ GP World on the Killer Checklist of Videogames
  28. ^ Laser Grand Prix on the Killer Checklist of Videogames
  29. ^ Prime Gear on the Killer Checklist of Videogames
  30. ^ Cosmos Circuit on the Killer Checklist of Videogames
  31. ^ Buggy Problem on the Killer Checklist of Videogames
  32. ^ Battle-Highway, The on the Killer Checklist of Videogames
  33. ^ a b “The Historical past of Papyrus Racing – Web page 2”. GameSpot. Retrieved 2020-06-07.
  34. ^ Dangle On on the Killer Checklist of Videogames
  35. ^ Racing recreation on the Killer Checklist of Videogames
  36. ^ Gazza, Brian. “Outrun”. Hardcore Gaming 101. Retrieved 2018-10-11.
  37. ^ Faylor, Chris (Might 21, 2008). “James Cameron: True 3D Gaming Is the Future, Already in Upcoming Avatar Sport”. Retrieved 2016-05-13.
  38. ^ “Gems In The Tough: Yesterday’s Ideas Mined For As we speak”. Gamasutra. Retrieved 2016-05-13.
  39. ^ Profitable Run on the Killer Checklist of Videogames
  40. ^ “The Historical past of Papyrus Racing – Web page 3”. GameSpot. Archived from the unique on 2012-07-08. Retrieved 2011-01-30.
  41. ^ “Virtua Racing—Arcade (1992)”. 15 Most Influential Video games of All Time. GameSpot. 2001. Archived from the unique on 20 March 2013. Retrieved 12 April 2012.
  42. ^ a b “Tremendous Mario Kart”. The historical past of Mario Kart: a race by way of time…. Nintendo Australia. 2014. Retrieved June 14, 2017.
  43. ^ “Prime 25 Racing Video games… Ever! Half 2”. Retro Gamer. 21 September 2009. pp. 5–6. Retrieved 2011-03-17.
  44. ^ Guinness World Data Gamer’s Version, 2009, p. 103, ISBN 978-1-904994-45-9
  45. ^ Dean Takahashi (2010-01-14). “Gran Turismo’s creator takes a fifth stab at an ideal racing recreation | GamesBeat | Video games | by Dean Takahashi”. Retrieved 2016-05-13.
  46. ^ a b “Archived copy”. Archived from the unique on Might 28, 2010. Retrieved February 8, 2016.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (hyperlink)
  47. ^ Gran Turismo’ Franchise Gross sales Surpasses 80 Million – Gran Turismo® Sport”.
  48. ^ “Prime 25 Racing Video games… Ever! Half 1”. Retro Gamer. 16 September 2009. Archived from the unique on 23 Might 2016. Retrieved 2011-03-17.
  49. ^ Dec 09, Sam McEachern; 2018. “Prime 5 Greatest Racing Simulator Video games”.CS1 maint: numeric names: authors listing (hyperlink)
  50. ^ a b Schwab, Brian (2009). AI Sport Engine Programming. Cengage Studying. p. 192. ISBN 1584506288. Retrieved 2014-11-27.
  51. ^ a b Gregory, Jason (2009-06-09). Sport Engine Structure. CRC Press. p. 19. ISBN 1439879184. Retrieved 2014-11-27.
  52. ^ Adedeji, Shola (2012-06-14). “The Kart Racing Style”. Gamelitist. Archived from the unique on 2014-12-11. Retrieved 2014-12-02.
  53. ^ Rogers, Scott (2014-04-11). Degree Up! The Information to Nice Video Sport Design. John Wiley & Sons. p. 502. ISBN 1118877217. Retrieved 2014-11-27.
  54. ^ Ryan, Jeff (2011-08-04). Tremendous Mario: How Nintendo Conquered America. Penguin. ISBN 1101517638. Retrieved 2014-11-27.

Related posts

Leave a Comment