Native American gaming – Wikipedia

Native American gaming - Wikipedia

Casinos, bingo halls, and different playing operations on Indian reservations or different tribal land in the US

Native American gaming includes casinos, bingo halls, and different playing operations on Indian reservations or different tribal land in the US. As a result of these areas have tribal sovereignty, states have restricted potential to forbid playing there, as codified by the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act of 1988. As of 2011, there have been 460 playing operations run by 240 tribes,[1] with a complete annual income of $27 billion.[2]

Historical past[edit]

Within the early 1970s, Russell and Helen Bryan, a married Chippewa couple residing in a cellular dwelling on Indian lands in northern Minnesota, obtained a property tax invoice from the native county, Itasca County.[3] The Bryans had by no means obtained a property tax invoice from the county earlier than. Unwilling to pay it, they took the tax discover to native authorized assist attorneys at Leech Lake Authorized Companies, who introduced swimsuit to problem the tax within the state courts. The Bryans misplaced their case within the state district courtroom, they usually misplaced once more on enchantment in a unanimous choice by the Minnesota Supreme Courtroom. They then sought evaluate on the Supreme Courtroom of the US. The Supreme Courtroom granted evaluate, and in a sweeping and unanimous choice authored by Justice Brennan, the Supreme Courtroom held not solely that states do not need authority to tax Natives on their reservations, however that additionally they lack the authority to regulate Native actions on their reservations.[3] As Gaming Legislation Professor Kevin Ok. Washburn has defined, the stage was now set for Native gaming. Inside a couple of years,[4][5] enterprising Natives and tribes started to function Indian bingo operations in quite a few completely different places round the US.

Beneath the management of Howard Tommie, the Seminole Tribe of Florida constructed a big high-stakes bingo constructing on their reservation close to Fort Lauderdale, Florida. The tribe deliberate for the bingo corridor to be open six days per week, opposite to Florida state regulation which solely permits two days per week for bingo halls to be open, in addition to going over the utmost restrict of $100 jackpots.[6] The regulation was enacted from the charity bingo limits set by Catholic Church buildings. The sheriff of Broward County, the place the Native reservation lies, made arrests the minute the bingo corridor opened, and the tribe sued the county (Seminole Tribe v. Butterworth), stating that Native tribes have sovereignty rights which might be protected by the federal authorities from interference by state authorities. A District Courtroom dominated in favor of the Natives, citing Chief Justice John Marshall in Worcester v. Georgia. Right here started the authorized warfare of Native gaming with a win for the Seminoles.

Controversy arose when Natives started placing personal casinos, bingo rooms, and lotteries on reservation lands and started setting gaming prizes which have been above the utmost authorized restrict of the state. The Natives argued for sovereignty over their reservations to make them immune from state legal guidelines resembling Public Legislation 280, which granted states to have legal jurisdiction over Native reservations.[7] States have been afraid that Natives would have a big aggressive benefit over different playing institutions within the state which was regulated, which might thus generate an unlimited quantity of revenue for tribes.

Within the late 1970s and persevering with into the following decade, the fragile query regarding the legality of tribal gaming and immunity from state regulation hovered over the Supreme Courtroom.[8] The Courtroom addressed the potential playing had for organized crime by way of the Organized Crime Management Act of 1970. A report by the Division of Justice introduced to the Senate Choose Committee on Indian Affairs on March 18, 1992, concluded that by way of a number of years of FBI investigation, organized crime had didn’t infiltrate Native gaming and that there was no hyperlink between legal exercise in Native gaming and arranged crime.[7]

A Supreme Courtroom ruling issued on July 9, 2020 which expanded tribal jurisdiction for the Muscogee (Creek) Nation in Oklahoma additionally opened the chance for Native People to have extra energy to control on line casino playing.[9]

Cabazon Band, 1980[edit]

Within the early 1960s, the Cabazon Band of Mission Indians, close to Indio, California, have been extraordinarily poor and didn’t have a lot land due to uncared for treaties within the 1850s by state senators. As Stuart Banner states, the Cabazon Band and the neighboring Morongo Reservation had “some HUD buildings and some trailers, however that was about it.[10] There was nothing actually there. The folks merely did not have lots.” The Cabazon Band turned to on line casino operations, opening bingo and poker halls in 1980. Shortly thereafter, the Indio police and the Riverside County Sheriff shut down the playing halls and arrested quite a few Natives whereas seizing any money and merchandise held within the tribe’s possession. The Cabazon Band sued in federal courtroom (California v. Cabazon Band) and received, as did the Seminole Tribe in Florida.[10] Though the tribe received within the decrease courts, the Supreme Courtroom reviewed the case in 1986 to succeed in a choice over whether or not Native reservations are managed by state regulation. The Courtroom once more dominated that Native gaming was to be regulated solely by Congress and the federal authorities, not state authorities; with tribal sovereignty upheld, the advantages of gaming turned accessible to many tribes.

Indian Gaming Regulatory Act[edit]

In 1988 Congress handed the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act (IGRA) (signed by President Ronald Reagan) which stored tribal sovereignty to create casino-like halls, however the states and Natives should be in Tribal-State compacts and the federal authorities has the facility to control the gaming.[11] These compacts have been utilized by state officers to confiscate Native on line casino income which serves as a “particular” tax on Native reservations. Primarily, the tribes nonetheless have “unique proper” to all lessons of gaming besides when states don’t settle for that class or it clashes with federal regulation.[12]

Class III Native gaming turned a big situation for the states and federal authorities, due to these courtroom circumstances, as Congress debated over a invoice for Native gaming known as the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act.

At present, all makes an attempt to problem the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act on constitutional grounds have failed.

After President Reagan signed the IGRA, Native gaming income skyrocketed from $100 million in 1988 to $16.7 billion in 2006.[13] Following the IGRA, the Nationwide Indian Gaming Fee was created as a federal company in 1988 to control high-stakes Native gaming.

The Fee consists of three members: a boss who’s appointed by the US President with the consent of the Senate, and two affiliate members appointed by the Secretary of the Inside.[14] Every member serves a three-year time period and should go an in depth background verify by the US Legal professional Normal.

The NIGC withholds sure powers over Class II and Class III gaming. These embrace price range approval, civil fines, charges, subpoenas, and everlasting orders. The NIGC displays Class II gaming on Native lands on a seamless foundation by way of inspection, investigation, entry to information, and contracts.[15] As for Class III gaming, all contracts should be accredited by the chairman of the NIGC. 200 of the 562 federally acknowledged tribes created Class III gaming of huge casinos and excessive jackpots.[12]

This rise of gaming not solely introduced nice income but additionally corruption. In January 2006, a courtroom case involving lobbyists convicted of felonies resembling conspiracy, fraud, and tax evasion. This was generally known as the Jack Abramoff Indian lobbying scandal. These lobbyists, Jack Abramoff, Ralph Reed, Jr., Grover Norquist, and Michael Scanlon, bribed members of Congress when lobbying for Native casinos, then overcharged their Native shoppers; this generated round $90 million in charges from the Natives.[16]

2006 laws[edit]

In 2006, Congress launched laws to guard their very own on line casino pursuits from these tribes which might be exterior reservations.[citation needed] Additional, the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) has confronted growing strain to tighten regulatory coverage and oversight of on line casino approvals. Particularly, the BIA has been instructed by Congress to implement new procedures after twenty years of IGRA’s existence. These procedures would permit native communities to have extra affect within the siting of casinos of their neighborhood and would make the method of on line casino approval extra clear. To many tribes, nonetheless, the proposed rules will additional encroach on tribal sovereignty.

Pacific Northwest playing[edit]

Indian gaming turned the main target for a lot of tribes in efforts to retrieve their sovereignty and financial independence.[17] Native American tribes went by way of huge political, financial, and social change after the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act of 1988. Non-Native People instituted their politics and compelled Native People onto small reservations. On line casino and bingo halls have offered funding for housing, medical, social companies, schooling, and lots of different assets for the Native American tribes.[18] Funds derived from playing has superior Native People however is influenced by the Federal authorities. Native People have compromised their needs due to a set of provisions pressured on the Native People by the federal authorities. The primary provision enforced was that the state has to approve the type of gaming that’s performed. The second provision was the state and reservations needed to agree on the place to construct every on line casino. The third provision required the tribe to develop gaming ordinances to be accredited by the chairman of the Nationwide Indian Gaming Fee.[19]

The Puyallup Tribe’s on line casino superior tribal company majorly. The Emerald Queen On line casino earnings enabled the tribe to protect their tradition.[20]

Playing has each optimistic and destructive results on Native People. Indian gaming weakens Indian sovereignty and breaks down tribal cultures and conventional values and has elevated home abuse.[21]

Indian gaming supplies job alternative for hundreds of Native and non-Native People. The on line casino and bingo corridor generates billions of {dollars} in income that helps Native American sovereignty.[22]


Statistics offered by the Nationwide Indian Gaming Fee (NIGC), point out that there are 460 Native gaming institutions within the US.[23] These casinos are operated by 240 federally acknowledged tribes and supply Class I, Class II and Class III gaming. Gaming is split into Three lessons with a unique regulatory scheme for every:

Class I[edit]

Class I gaming is outlined as (1) conventional Indian gaming, which can be a part of tribal ceremonies and celebrations, and (2) social gaming for minimal prizes. Regulatory authority over class I gaming is vested solely in tribal governments and isn’t topic to IGRA’s necessities.

Class II[edit]

Class II gaming is outlined as the sport of likelihood generally generally known as bingo (whether or not or not digital, pc, or different technological aids are utilized in connection therewith) and, if performed in the identical location because the bingo, pull tabs, punch board, tip jars, instantaneous bingo, and different video games much like bingo. Class II gaming additionally contains non-banked card video games, that’s, video games which might be performed solely towards different gamers quite than towards the home or a participant performing as a financial institution. The Act particularly excludes slot machines or digital facsimiles of any sport of likelihood from the definition of sophistication II video games.

Tribes retain their authority to conduct, license, and regulate class II gaming as long as the state through which the Tribe is positioned permits such gaming for any objective, and the Tribal authorities adopts a gaming ordinance accredited by the Nationwide Indian Gaming Fee (NIGC). Tribal governments are accountable for regulating class II gaming with Fee oversight. Solely Hawaii and Utah proceed to ban all varieties of gaming.

Class III[edit]

The definition of sophistication III gaming is broad. It contains all types of gaming which might be neither class I nor II. Video games generally performed at casinos, resembling slot machines, blackjack, craps, and roulette, clearly fall within the class III class, in addition to wagering video games and digital facsimiles of any sport of likelihood. Usually, class III is also known as casino-style gaming. As a compromise, the Act restricts Tribal authority to conduct class III gaming.

Earlier than a Tribe could lawfully conduct class III gaming, the next situations should be met:

  • The Explicit type of class III gaming that the Tribe needs to conduct should be permitted within the state through which the tribe is positioned.
  • The Tribe and the state will need to have negotiated a compact that has been accredited by the Secretary of the Inside, or the Secretary will need to have accredited regulatory procedures.
  • The Tribe will need to have adopted a Tribal gaming ordinance that has been accredited by the Chairman of the Fee.

The regulatory scheme for sophistication III gaming is extra advanced than an informal studying of the statute would possibly counsel. Though Congress clearly meant regulatory points to be addressed in Tribal-State compacts, it left a lot of key capabilities in federal palms, together with approval authority over compacts, administration contracts, and Tribal gaming ordinances. Congress additionally vested the Fee with broad authority to situation rules in furtherance of the needs of the Act. Accordingly, the Fee performs a key function within the regulation of sophistication II and III gaming.[24]

The income generated in these institutions was near $27.1 billion in 2011 up from $12.Eight billion in 2001. The areas with largest revenues in 2011 have been Sacramento ($6.9 billion) and Washington State ($6.7 billion).[25] The Native American gaming business has been described as “recession-resistant”, though tribes in lots of states (together with Arizona, California, Connecticut and New Mexico) noticed revenues fall at an identical fee to industrial casinos through the Nice Recession of 2007-2009.[26]

Tribal casinos within the japanese US generated roughly $3.Eight billion in FY02. These within the Central US recorded gross revenues of roughly $5.9 billion, whereas these within the Western US generated practically $4.Eight billion. A lot of the revenues generated within the Native gaming are from casinos positioned in or close to giant metropolitan areas. At present, 12% of Native gaming institutions generate 65% of Native gaming revenues. Native gaming operations positioned within the populous areas of the West Coast (primarily California) signify the quickest rising sector of the Native gaming business. As advised by the above figures, the overwhelming majority of tribal casinos are a lot much less financially profitable, significantly these within the Midwest and Nice Plains. Many tribes see this restricted monetary success as being tempered by decreases in reservation unemployment and poverty charges, though socioeconomic deficits stay.

As of 2008 there are 562 federally acknowledged tribes in the US, a lot of which have chosen to not enter the playing business.

California gaming[edit]

The most important on line casino within the state of California is the Pechanga Resort and On line casino in Temecula, with 3,000+ slot machines and roughly 200,000 sq ft (19,000 m2) of gaming area.[27] Different notable gaming operations in California embrace the Morongo On line casino, Resort & Spa, San Manuel Band of Mission Indians On line casino and the Chumash On line casino Resort.

Oklahoma gaming[edit]

Native gaming revenues in Oklahoma rose to $3.23 billion in 2010, representing 44 p.c of all U.S. casinos. Oklahoma surpassed Connecticut as second in the US for gaming income, based on Alan Meister, an economist with Nathan Associates Inc.[28]
Oklahoma has 113 tribal casinos, greater than another state within the U.S.[29] A 2015 report on U.S. Gaming says that Oklahoma has essentially the most gaming machines.[30]WinStar World On line casino in Thackerville, Oklahoma, is the third largest on line casino in North America with greater than 500,000 sq. toes of gaming ground.[31] A lot of this success is because of geography: the Dallas-Fort Price metroplex is roughly an hour’s drive from the Oklahoma state line, and Texas doesn’t allow on line casino playing. The Indian Gaming Regulatory Act of 1988 mandates that internet revenues of such gaming be directed to tribes for presidency, financial improvement and normal welfare use; to charitable organizations and to assist fund native governments. Authorized by voters in 2004, Oklahoma’s State-Tribal Gaming Act created a tribal gaming compact permitting federally acknowledged American Indian tribes to function, digital bonanza-style bingo video games, digital amusement video games, digital instantaneous bingo video games and non house-banked card video games. The present compact routinely renews on Jan. 1, 2020.[32] The Oklahoma Indian Welfare Act allowed any acknowledged tribe in Oklahoma to be federally included, have the suitable to self-determination and make their very own bylaws.

Connecticut gaming[edit]

The Foxwoods Resort On line casino opened in 1992 in Ledyard, Connecticut. Operated by the Mashantucket Pequot Tribe and incomes $1.5 billion, it was extra worthwhile than anybody on line casino in Las Vegas or Atlantic Metropolis.[33] With 7,200 slot machines and 380 desk video games, the 314,000-square-foot (29,200 m2) Foxwoods Resort On line casino is the biggest on line casino within the US and second largest on the earth after Venetian Macao. At present, the property spans 1.5 miles from finish to finish, with 6 casinos, 4 accommodations, greater than 30 eating places, two theaters, two spas, and a couple of hundred retailers. The settlement between the Mashantucket Pequot Tribal Nation and the State of Connecticut guarantees the state $80 million or 25% of their annual slot income.[34] Since Foxwoods opened in 1992, the state of Connecticut has obtained greater than $Four billion in slot income from Foxwoods alone.

The Mohegan Solar Resort & On line casino can be positioned in Connecticut, and is owned and operated by the Mohegan Tribe. The Mohegan Tribe approached the Mashantucket Pequots within the early 1990s for permission to pursue gaming. Though doing so would relinquish their gaming monopoly in Connecticut, the Mashantuckets granted the Mohegans their request, who then opened Mohegan Solar in 1996. This enterprise is 580,000 sq. toes (54,000 m2) and consists of 6,500 slot machines and 180 desk video games.[35] It’s the second largest on line casino in the US, positioned 7 miles away from Foxwoods in Uncasville, Connecticut. Since opening in 1996, the state of Connecticut has obtained greater than $Three billion in slot income from Mohegan Solar alone.

The success of each casinos is due in no small half to their location roughly midway between New York Metropolis and Boston.[35]

The financial recession that started in 2007 took a heavy toll of receipts, and by 2012 each Foxwoods in Connecticut and its close by rival the Mohegan Solar have been deeply in debt.[36]The New York Instances Journal stated “Foxwoods is combating for its life”, with money owed of $2.Three billion.[37] In August 2012, the tribe proudly owning the Foxwoods On line casino restructured over a billion {dollars} in debt in an try to stay worthwhile.[38]

Idaho gaming[edit]

The Coeur d’Alene On line casino is positioned in Idaho, US. Based in 1993, the institution consists the Circling Raven Golf Membership, two luxurious accommodations, 100,000 sq. toes of on line casino area, and varied eating places. The Coeur d’Alene On line casino presently employs a median of 1000 native residents, making it one of many largest employers within the area.[39] Part of the on line casino’s earnings are invested again to the Coeur d’Alene folks in schooling and varied funding tasks.[40][41]

The Shoshone-Bannock Tribe additionally operates a slots-only on line casino in Fort Corridor, Idaho positioned simply exterior Pocatello, Idaho.

New York gaming[edit]

In March 1994 the Mohawk folks created a three way partnership with Alpha Hospitality to develop and function a gaming facility on tribal lands.[42][43] In January 1996 they entered right into a memorandum with Robert A. Berman’s Catskill Improvement, L.L.C. concerning the event and administration of a on line casino adjoining to the Monticello Raceway. The venture obtained approval from the Nationwide Indian Gaming Fee.[44][45]

In 1999, nonetheless, the Mohawk tribe signed an settlement to construct the on line casino with Park Place Leisure (now Caesars Leisure) as an alternative.[46][47] The Akwesasne Mohawk On line casino (AMC) was inaugurated that very same 12 months in Hogansburg, New York.[48] The power includes 140,000 sq. toes of on line casino ground area that features over 1,800 slot machines and 30 desk video games, in addition to a luxurious lodge, spas, eating places, and a lot of leisure venues. The on line casino is managed by the Mohawk Nation.[49]

Indiana gaming[edit]

The state of Indiana’s first tribal on line casino was opened on the 16th of January 2017. The 175,000-square-foot 4 Winds On line casino is positioned in South Bend and is operated by the Pokagon Band of Potawatomi Indians.[50]

Minnesota gaming[edit]

The most important on line casino in Minnesota is Mystic Lake On line casino Resort. Mystic Lake On line casino Resort is owned and operated by the Shakopee Mdewakanton Sioux Group (SMSC) in Prior Lake, Minnesota, United States, southwest of Minneapolis and Saint Paul. With 4,100 staff, the SMSC – together with Mystic Lake On line casino Resort and Little Six On line casino – is the biggest employer in Scott County. The on line casino’s playing choices embrace slots, bingo, video roulette, pulltabs, and dwell vendor blackjack. Mystic Lake additionally provides bars, eating places, exhibits, particular occasions, and lodging.[51]

The Treasure Island Resort & On line casino is a tribal gaming facility owned and operated by the Prairie Island Indian Group (PIIC) in Welch, MN – Goodhue County. It’s the solely on line casino resort in southern Minnesota positioned on the Mississippi River. The on line casino’s gaming choices embrace slot machines; video roulette, blackjack and keno; dwell vendor blackjack, poker and different desk video games; and bingo. Further facilities to the property embrace a lodge, the Island Occasion Middle, a marina, RV-park, a cruise yacht, a 24-lane bowling middle, a number of eating places; and a water park and spa. Using practically 1,500 folks, Treasure Island Resort & On line casino is the biggest employer in Goodhue County.[52]

Florida gaming[edit]

The Seminole Exhausting Rock Resort & On line casino, also referred to as “The Guitar Resort”, is a lodge and on line casino resort close to Hollywood, Florida, United States, positioned on 100 acres (40 ha) of the Hollywood Reservation of the Seminole Tribe of Florida. The property presently has one lodge tower, a 140,000 sq ft (13,000 m2) on line casino, giant poker site, a Four acres (1.6 ha) lagoon-style pool facility with a middle bar and lots of personal cabanas, eating places, outlets, spa, bars and nightclubs, and the Exhausting Rock Occasion Middle. A big growth was accomplished in October 2019.[53]

Influence on Native American economics[edit]

Native American gaming has, in some cases, modified the face of tribal economies, however it has additionally confirmed to be very ineffective in different conditions. Though tribal victories over the governmental and cultural oppression within the 1950s yielded a dynamic transformation, financial success fell brief as compared.[54] Unemployment was down and private revenue had elevated, however solely a handful of tribes had made financial modifications. Their strides have been spotty and fluctuated tremendously from every Native reservation. This was taking place as a result of, for many tribes, their lands weren’t economically productive, infrastructure was poor, they usually have been distant from prospering markets of huge populations. With the intention to handle the problem of poverty, Native tribes have been required to gas some sort of financial improvement. Natives offered a few of their tribal land to prospecting non-Natives as a way to stimulate financial progress, however tribal gaming has proved to be the one largest supply of revenue within the Native neighborhood. Nonetheless, the US authorities intervened in tribal affairs all through the rise of Native gaming.

Many tribal governments have seen substantial enhancements of their potential to supply public companies to their members, resembling constructing faculties, enhancing infrastructure, and shoring up the lack of native traditions. Tribal gaming operations haven’t been with out controversy, nonetheless. A small variety of tribes have been in a position to distribute giant per-capita funds, producing appreciable public consideration. Moreover, the nationwide growth of Native gaming has led to a apply critics name reservation procuring.[55] This time period describes tribes that, with the backing of on line casino buyers, try to find a on line casino off their reservation, normally close to a big city middle. Nonetheless, though approved by the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act, solely three “off-reservation” casinos have been constructed so far.

In common tradition[edit]

  • The Whistler by John Grisham facilities on the ethical and authorized issues concerned in Native American gaming.
  • “Purple Man’s Greed”, a seventh-season episode of the animated tv sequence South Park, focuses on a Native American tribe’s scheme to purchase and demolish the complete city of South Park by engaging its residents to gamble away their financial savings in a newly opened on line casino.

See additionally[edit]


  • Wilkinson, Charles. Blood Wrestle: The Rise of Fashionable Indian Nations. First ed. New York: W. W. Norton & Firm, 2005. ISBN 0-393-05149-8.
  1. ^ Gaming Tribe Report (Report). Nationwide Indian Gaming Fee. July 6, 2011. Archived from the unique on February 20, 2013. Retrieved 2013-02-18.
  2. ^ NIGC Tribal Gaming Revenues (PDF) (Report). Nationwide Indian Gaming Fee. 2011. Archived from the unique (PDF) on 2012-10-10. Retrieved 2013-02-18.
  3. ^ a b Kevin Ok. Washburn, “The Legacy of Bryan v. Itasca County: How an Misguided $147 County Tax Discover Helped Convey Tribes $200 Billion in Indian Gaming Income” 92 Minnesota Legislation Evaluate 919 (2008).
  4. ^ Anderson, Jack (August 13, 1975). “Nixon invited to go to China”. Lewiston Day by day Solar. Maine. p. 4.
  5. ^ Hillinger, Charles (February 13, 1976). “Minnesota Indians’ on line casino assessments state gaming regulation”. Spokesman-Evaluate. Spokane, Washington. (Los Angeles Instances). p. 16.
  6. ^ Wilkinson, p333.
  7. ^ a b Wilmer, Frank. “Indian Gaming: Gamers and Stakes.” 1997. Wicazo Sa Evaluate, 12(1), 89-114. Retrieved November 14, 2008, from JSTOR. (1409164).
  8. ^ Wilkinson, p331.
  9. ^ Hurley, Lawrence (July 9, 2020). “U.S. Supreme Courtroom deems half of Oklahoma a Native American reservation”. Reuters.
  10. ^ a b Wilkinson, p332.
  11. ^ Wilkinson, p335.
  12. ^ a b Wilkinson, p336.
  13. ^ Wilkinson, pp335-36.
  14. ^ Fox, Jim, Jim Kilby, & Anthony F. Lucas.”On line casino Operations Administration.” 2005. John Wiley and Sons. 26. ISBN 0-471-26632-9.
  15. ^ Fox, Jim, Jim Kilby, & Anthony F. Lucas.”On line casino Operations Administration.” 2005. John Wiley and Sons. 28. ISBN 0-471-26632-9.
  16. ^ Congress–and Different U.S. Cesspools ISBN 0-932438-29-6, ISBN 978-0-932438-29-4
  17. ^ Mason, Dale W. (2000). Indian Gaming: Tribal Sovereignty and American Politics. Norman: College of Oklahoma Press.
  18. ^ Ruby, Robert H.; Brown, John A.; Collins, Cary C.; Kinkade, Dale; O’Niell, Sean (2010). A Information to the Indian Tribes of the Pacific Northwest (third ed.). Norman: College of Oklahoma Press.
  19. ^ Treuer, David (2019). The Heartbeat of Wounded Knee. New York: River Head Brooks. pp. 370–73.
  20. ^ Douglas, Miguel; Miller, Danica (2016). “The On line casino Financial system: Indian Gaming, Tribal Sovereignty, Financial Independence for the Puyallup Tribe of Indians”. College of Washington Press (Seattle).
  21. ^ Peroff, Nicholas C. (2001). Indian Gaming, Tribal Sovereignty, and American Indian Tribes as Complicated Adaptive Techniques. American Indian Tradition and Analysis Journal.
  22. ^ Meister, Alan P.; Rand, Kathryn R. L. (2009). “Indian Gaming and Past: Tribal Financial Improvement and Diversification”. South Dakota Legislation Evaluate: 375–493.
  23. ^ “NGIC”. Archived from the unique on 2013-02-20. Retrieved 2012-06-10.
  24. ^ “Indian Gaming Regulatory Act”, Wikipedia, 2020-04-03, retrieved 2020-10-10
  25. ^ “Native American Gold Rush”. Retrieved 2012-11-13.
  26. ^ Aliese M. McArthur; Thaddieus W. Conner; William A. Taggart (2010). “A Analysis Word on Indian Gaming in Arizona: Proof of Recession and Restoration”. Indigenous Coverage Journal. 21 (1). Retrieved 2015-07-14.
  27. ^ “Pechanga Resort & On line casino”. Pechanga Resort & On line casino. Retrieved 2012-05-04.
  28. ^ “Oklahoma second in nation for tribal gaming – Tulsa World: Authorities”. Tulsa World. 2012-03-06. Retrieved 2015-11-07.
  29. ^ Record of casinos in Oklahoma
  30. ^ “Calif. tops U.S. in tribal on line casino income”. 2015-04-06. Retrieved 2015-11-07.
  31. ^ “Oklahoma Casinos and Gaming | – Oklahoma’s Official Journey & Tourism Web site”. Retrieved 2015-11-07.
  32. ^
  33. ^ Waldman, Carl. Atlas of The North American Indian. third ed. New York: Infobase, 2009. Print.
  34. ^ “Casinos: Native American Tribal Casinos – The Story Of Native American Casinos In Two States”. Web Industries. Retrieved 2012-05-04.
  35. ^ a b Barker, Thomas, and Marjie Britz. Jokers wild: legalized playing within the twenty-first century. New York: Greenwood Group, 2000. Print.
  36. ^ Related Press, “Indian casinos battle to get out from underneath debt”, January 21, 2012 on-line
  37. ^ Michael Sokolove, “Foxwoods is combating for its life”. The New York Instances Journal (2012) Archived 2014-03-25 on the Wayback Machine
  38. ^ Stephan A. Hoover, “Forcing the Tribe to Wager on the Home: The Restricted Choices and Dangers to the Tribe When Indian Gaming Operations Search Chapter Reduction”. California Western Legislation Evaluate 49 (2013): 269–309. On-line (PDF).
  39. ^ “Jackpot for jobs”. Spokesman.
  40. ^ Frey, Rodney (2001). Panorama Traveled by Coyote and Crane: The World of the Schitsu’umsh. College of Washington Press; Paper version. ISBN 978-0295981628.
  41. ^ “Sijohn is new on line casino CEO for Coeur d’Alene Tribe”. Idaho Enterprise Evaluate.
  42. ^ “Empire Resorts”. Reference For Enterprise.
  43. ^ “Catskill On line casino Politics: Recreation of Delicate Steadiness”. New York Instances.
  44. ^ “Towards All Odds, a Difficult On line casino Proposal Advances”. New York Instances.
  45. ^ “Reluctantly, a Tribe Begins to See Casinos As Being Crucial”. New York Instances.
  46. ^ “Catskill Improvement v. Park Place Leisure, 144 F. Supp. second 215 (S.D.N.Y. 2001)”. Legislation Justicia.
  47. ^ “Park Place Leisure Proclaims Submitting of Sullivan County On line casino Utility”. Gamber’s Nook.
  48. ^ “Mohawk Catskills on line casino plans advance, backers survive a authorized gauntlet”. Indian Nation At present.
  49. ^ “Akwesasne Mohawk On line casino”.
  50. ^ “Indiana’s latest on line casino — and first tribal on line casino — is now open in South Bend”. 16 January 2018. Retrieved 18 January 2018.
  51. ^ “Mystic Lake On line casino Resort”, Wikipedia, 2020-10-06, retrieved 2020-10-10
  52. ^ “Treasure Island Resort & On line casino”, Wikipedia, 2020-09-29, retrieved 2020-10-10
  53. ^ “Seminole Exhausting Rock Resort & On line casino Hollywood”, Wikipedia, 2020-09-22, retrieved 2020-10-10
  54. ^ Wilkinson, p329.
  55. ^ “A giant on line casino guess” San Francisco Chronicle (17 Could 2006)

Additional studying[edit]

  • Mary Lawlor, Public Native America: Tribal Self Representations in Casinos, Museums, and Powwows, Rutgers College Press, 2006, paperback, 234 pages, ISBN 0-8135-3865-3
  • Steven Andrew Gentle and Kathryn R.L. Rand, Indian Gaming and Tribal Sovereignty: The On line casino Compromise, College Press of Kansas, 2005, hardcover, 240 pages, ISBN 0-7006-1406-0
  • Kathryn R.L. Rand and Steven Andrew Gentle, Indian Gaming Legislation and Coverage, Carolina Educational Press, 2006, hardcover, 306 pages, ISBN 1-59460-046-5
  • Brett Duval Fromson, Hitting the Jackpot: The Inside Story of the Richest Indian Tribe in Historical past, Atlantic Month-to-month Press, September, 2003, hardcover, 320 pages, ISBN 0-87113-904-9; hardcover, Gale Group, February, 2004, hardcover, 366 pages, ISBN 0-7862-6211-7

Exterior hyperlinks[edit]

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