Flashcard – Wikipedia

Flashcard - Wikipedia

A set of flashcards demonstrating the Leitner system. Playing cards that the learner is aware of are promoted to a field for much less frequent evaluate (indicated by inexperienced arrows); playing cards for which the learner has forgotten the that means are demoted to be studied extra regularly (indicated by crimson arrows).

A flashcard or flash card is a card bearing data on each side, which is meant for use as an support in memorization. Every flashcard bears a query on one aspect and a solution on the opposite. Flashcards are sometimes used to memorize vocabulary, historic dates, formulation or any material that may be discovered by way of a question-and-answer format. Flashcards may be digital (a part of a flashcard software program), or bodily.

Flashcards are an utility of the testing impact − the discovering that long-term reminiscence is elevated when a few of the studying interval is dedicated to retrieving the knowledge by way of testing with correct suggestions. Examine habits have an effect on the speed at which a flashcard-user learns, and correct spacing of flashcards has been confirmed to speed up studying. Quite a few spaced repetition software program packages exist which benefit from this precept.

Flashcards train the psychological strategy of energetic recall: given a immediate (the query), one produces the reply. Past the content material of playing cards, that are collected in decks, there’s the query of use – how does one use the playing cards, specifically, how regularly does one evaluate (extra finely, how does one schedule evaluate) and the way does one react to errors, both full failures to recall or errors? Numerous techniques have been developed, principally based mostly round spaced repetition – rising the time intervals between evaluations at any time when a card is recalled appropriately.

Spaced repetition[edit]

Instance of a digital flashcard: utilizing flashcard software program Anki to evaluate a mathematical system. First, solely the query is displayed. Then the reply is displayed too, for verification.

Spaced repetition is an evidence-based studying approach which includes rising time intervals between every evaluate of a flashcard with a view to exploit the psychological spacing impact. Newly launched and harder flashcards are proven extra regularly whereas older and easier flashcards are proven much less regularly. Using spaced repetition has been proven to extend fee of studying.[1] Though the precept is helpful in lots of contexts, spaced repetition is often utilized in contexts during which a learner should purchase a lot of gadgets and retain them indefinitely in reminiscence. It’s, subsequently, properly suited to the issue of vocabulary acquisition in the midst of second language studying. Spaced repetition software program has been developed to help the educational course of.[2]

Leitner system[edit]

Within the Leitner system, appropriately answered playing cards are superior to the following, much less frequent field, whereas incorrectly answered playing cards return to the primary field for extra aggressive evaluate and repetition.

The Leitner system is a extensively used technique of effectively utilizing flashcards that was proposed by the German science journalist Sebastian Leitner within the 1970s. It’s a easy implementation of the precept of spaced repetition, the place playing cards are reviewed at rising intervals.

On this technique flashcards are sorted into teams based on how properly the learner is aware of each within the Leitner’s studying field. The learners attempt to recall the answer written on a flashcard. In the event that they succeed, they ship the cardboard to the following group. In the event that they fail, they ship it again to the primary group. Every succeeding group has an extended time period earlier than the learner is required to revisit the playing cards. In Leitner’s authentic technique, printed in his guide So lernt man Lernen (Tips on how to study to study), the schedule of repetition was ruled by the dimensions of the partitions within the studying field. These have been 1, 2, 5, eight and 14cm. Solely when a partition grew to become full was the learner to evaluate a few of the playing cards it contained, shifting them ahead or again relying on whether or not they remembered them.

Software program[edit]

There may be a variety of software program (together with open supply and on-line providers) obtainable for creating and utilizing digital flashcards as an support to studying.

Two-sided playing cards[edit]

Bodily flashcards are two-sided; in some contexts one needs to appropriately produce the alternative aspect upon being introduced with both aspect, akin to in overseas language vocabulary; in different contexts one is content material to go in just one route, akin to in producing a poem given its title or incipit (opening). For bodily flashcards, one could both use a single card, flipping it based on the route, or two parallel decks, akin to one English-Japanese and one Japanese-English. They’ve a lot of makes use of and may be easy or elaborate relying on the consumer. It’s demonstrated {that a} two-sided flashcard is likely one of the only methods to study overseas language vocabulary that helps learners memorize extra simply, bear in mind without end and study extra flexibly.

Historical past[edit]

Paper flashcards have been used since not less than the 19th century, with Studying Disentangled (1834), a set of phonics flashcards by English educator Favell Lee Mortimer being credited by some as the primary flashcards.[3] Beforehand, a single-sided hornbook had been used for early literacy schooling.

The Leitner system for scheduling flashcards was launched by German scientific journalist Sebastian Leitner within the 1970s, particularly his 1972 So lernt man lernen. Der Weg zum Erfolg (Tips on how to study to study),[4] whereas the SuperMemo program and algorithm (particularly the SM-2 algorithm, which is the most well-liked in different packages) was launched on December 13, 1987 by Polish researcher Piotr Woźniak.[5]


  1. ^ Smolen, Paul; Zhang, Yili; Byrne, John H. (25 January 2016). “The precise time to study: mechanisms and optimization of spaced studying”. Nature Opinions Neuroscience. 17 (2): 77–88. arXiv:1606.08370. Bibcode:2016arXiv160608370S. doi:10.1038/nrn.2015.18. PMC 5126970. PMID 26806627.
  2. ^ “Human Reminiscence: Principle and Apply”, Alan D. Baddeley, 1997
  3. ^ The Clumsiest Individuals in Europe: Or, Mrs. Mortimer’s Unhealthy-Tempered Information to the Victorian World, Favell Lee Mortimer, foreword by Todd Pruzan, 2006 version, p. 5
  4. ^ So lernt man lernen. Der Weg zum Erfolg (Tips on how to study to study), Freiburg i. Br. 1972/2003, ISBN 3-451-05060-9
  5. ^ 3. Account of analysis resulting in the SuperMemo technique, 3.1. The approximate perform of optimum intervals and three.2. Utility of a pc to enhance the outcomes obtained in working with the SuperMemo technique, P. A. Wozniak, Optimization of studying, Grasp’s Thesis, College of Know-how in Poznan, 1990.

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