Famicom & Nintendo Leisure System

Famicom & Nintendo Entertainment System

Historical past[edit]


The Nintendo Superior Video System, a prototype for the NES

The Nintendo Leisure System was proceeded by the Coloration TV-Sport Sequence.

Following a choice by Nintendo President Hiroshi Yamauchi to reinvest income from the Coloration TV Sport and Sport and watch techniques into additional recreation merchandise, the Famicom was launched in Japan on July 15, 1983 at a price of 14,800 yen.[1] Plans for the system initially referred to as for a 16-bit CPU however a extra economical 8-bit CPU was chosen.[2][3] Nintendo was capable of additional optimize the price of the CPU by putting a really giant bulk order with Ricoh.[4]

In 1983 Nintendo approached Atari about releasing their console within the USA, and agreed on it till a misunderstanding at CES 1983 sunk the deal.[5]


The primary NES bought in the USA on show on the Nintendo World Retailer

In 1983 Nintendo launched the Household Laptop (Famicom) in Japan.[6] They later launched the same Nintendo Leisure System (NES) to worldwide markets. The NES noticed its American launch in 1985, and European launch in 1986.[7][6] In the USA the NES was a dominant participant out there, however it acquired important challenges from the Sega grasp system in South America and Europe.[8]

1983 additionally noticed the launch of the Sharp C1 NES TV which built-in a Famicom with a 19 inch TV costing 145,000 yen or a 14 inch TV that value 93,000 yen.[9]

Seal of High quality[edit]

To keep away from unfavourable associations with online game consoles following the online game crash of 1983, Nintendo used cautious wording in its advertising to model the NES as an “Leisure” system, reasonably then a recreation console.[8] To keep away from a repeat of the poor high quality video games that brought about the crash, Nintendo required licensed builders to restrict recreation releases to 2 a 12 months, in addition to to censor overt depictions of gore and different delicate topics.[8]

Afterward within the system life, an Atari subsidiary would break the lockout safety used to implement Nintendo’s licensing, although this resulted in authorized challenges.[10] This impressed different corporations to make their very own bypass, although strategies that used a cost pump or unfavourable voltage spike may injury the system.[10][11]

Smash hit[edit]

The NES had a restricted United States of America launch in New York Metropolis and Los Angeles October 15th, 1985, with a nationwide launch a 12 months later.[12][13] These first markets have been picked to see if the NES may survive in tough markets, and retailers have been persuaded to hold the system by solely needing to pay for techniques bought, with unsold inventory being totally returnable.[13]

The Famicom Tiler was collectively launched by Nintendo and Sharp in 1989 at a price of 43,000 yen, and added video modifying options and S-Video to enhance display screen captures for media retailers.[14]

Worldwide Adoption[edit]

Some areas, reminiscent of India, noticed formally licensed NES variations.[15][16][17]

Different clones have been unlicensed, just like the Dendy console, made in Taiwan for the newly accessible Russian market the place it was authorized as a result of a scarcity of Mental property legal guidelines on the time.[18] This later led to an official partnership between Dendy and Nintendo.[18][19]

NES 101[edit]

In 1993 the NES 101, a price lowered model of the NES was launched, eradicating the composite output and decreasing the worth to $49.99.[20]


61.91 million NES and Famicom consoles have been bought.[21][22]

The Nintendo Leisure System and the Famicom was succeeded by the Tremendous Nintendo Leisure System and the Tremendous Famicom.

Nintendo stopped producing new NES items in 1995, new Famicom techniques in 2003, and stopped repairing Famicom techniques in 2007.[8]



The NES CPU was a lowered function model of the MOS 6502, a Rioch 2A03.[23] The CPU was clocked at 1.789773Mhz in NTSC areas, and at 1.773447Mhz in PAL areas.[23]

The NES had two kilobytes of RAM and two kilobytes of video RAM.[23][24]


The NES had a Rioch 2C02 Image Processing Unit for Graphical output, supporting as much as 52 colours and 64 sprites.[23]


The Nintendo Leisure System had 2 pulse wave channels, 1 triangle wave channel, 1 noise channel, and 1 DPCM channel.[23] The Famicom has further pins for cartridge primarily based sound chips.[25] A lot of totally different further audio chips have been utilized in Famicom cartridges.[26]

Notable Video games[edit]

The retro part of a store in Akihabara, promoting Famicom cartridges in 2015.





The long-lasting Legend of Zelda NES cartridge.


Metroid is famous for being an early recreation with a feminine protagonist.[27]

Learn extra about Metroid on Wikipedia.


Closing Fantasy[edit]

Hironobu Sakaguchi was a developer on the unique Closing Fantasy, seen right here at Tokyo Sport Present 2006.

The primary recreation within the fashionable RPG collection.

The sport was named Closing Fantasy as a result of the builders thought it could be their ultimate recreation earlier than Sq. went bankrupt.[28]

Many parts of Closing Fantasy look like impressed by Superior Dungeons and Dragons.[29][30]

Learn extra about Closing Fantasy I on Wikipedia.

Steel Gear[edit]

Early fashionable stealth recreation.

The NES port of Steel Gear was made with out the involvement of Hideo Kojima, who dislikes the NES model.[31]

Learn extra about Steel Gear on Wikipedia.




Closing Fantasy III[edit]

To not be confused with the North American Closing Fantasy III for the SNES, which was Closing Fantasy VI in different areas however had its identify modified in North America to keep away from skipping missed releases.[32] This was achieved to keep away from confusion on the time, although it brought about some confusion later.[32]

Closing Fantasy III was the primary Closing Fantasy collection recreation to interrupt one million gross sales.[33]

Learn extra about Closing Fantasy III on Wikipeida.




Dates are for the earliest launch on the NES. Worldwide releases usually occurred one or two years later.




NES 101[edit]

AV Famicom[edit]

Sharp Twin Famicom[edit]

Different Console Variants[edit]



Video games[edit]



Clone Consoles[edit]


There’s a wikibook on NES programming.

A 3rd get together firm, Energy 10 Inc., made a early movement controller for the NES that used mercury switches referred to as the Scorching Stik.[34]

Exterior Assets[edit]


  1. Hongo, Jun (15 July 2013). “Nintendo introduced arcade video games into houses 30 years in the past”. The Japan Occasions. Retrieved 25 October 2020. 
  2. “NintendoLand – One of the best website for information about Nintendo’s traditional video video games.”. 25 Could 2009. 
  3. “NES”. 
  4. Arsenault, Dominic (in en). Tremendous Energy, Spoony Bards, and Silverware: The Tremendous Nintendo Leisure System. MIT Press. ISBN 978-0-262-34150-9. Retrieved 20 December 2020. 
  5. “Function: Keep in mind When Atari Turned Down Nintendo And Sega?”. Nintendo Life. three February 2020. Retrieved 23 October 2020. 
  6. ab Sottek, T. C. (15 July 2013). “The Nintendo Famicom turns 30 years outdated at present” (in en). The Verge. Retrieved 19 October 2020. 
  7. “Nintendo Leisure System Video Sport Console” (in en). Retrieved 18 October 2020. 
  8. abcd Cunningham, Andrew (15 July 2013). “The NES turns 30: The way it started, labored, and saved an trade” (in en-us). Ars Technica. Retrieved 19 October 2020. 
  9. “This Nintendo Was Inside A Tv Set” (in en-us). Kotaku. Retrieved 27 October 2020. 
  10. ab “That Time Atari Cracked The Nintendo Leisure System”. Hackaday. 22 October 2018. Retrieved 25 October 2020. 
  11. “How Third-Celebration Sport Devs Reverse-Engineered Their Method Onto Your Consoles (and Into Your Coronary heart)” (in en). 
  12. “The NES Was As soon as So Uncommon You May Solely Get It In Two Cities” (in en-us). Kotaku. Retrieved 27 October 2020. 
  13. ab “Oct. 18, 1985: Nintendo Leisure System Launches” (in en-us). Wired. Retrieved 27 October 2020. 
  14. “The Nintendo Console From The 80s Made For Recording Gameplay Footage” (in en-us). Kotaku. Retrieved 27 October 2020. 
  15. Patil, Siddharth (12 Could 2016). “Nintendo And India :: An advanced Love Story”. 
  16. Ghoshal, Abhimanyu (30 December 2017). “Why has Nintendo ignored India for 30 years?” (in en-us). 
  17. “The NES Samurai boxed!” (in en). 
  18. ab Calvin, Alex (17 December 2017). “How a counterfeit NES console opened up the Russian video games market” (in en). https://www.eurogamer.internet/articles/2017-12-17-how-a-counterfeit-nes-console-opened-up-the-russian-games-market. 
  19. Muradov, Roman (23 October 2017). “Dendy’s Dream Debased” (in en). 
  20. Byford, Sam (11 July 2019). “A short historical past of cutdown recreation consoles” (in en). The Verge. Retrieved 19 October 2020. 
  21. “Genesis vs. SNES: By the Numbers – IGN” (in en). Retrieved 13 November 2020. 
  22. “IR Info : Gross sales Information – Devoted Video Sport Gross sales Models” (in en). Retrieved 14 November 2020. 
  23. abcde “NES Programming – Wikibooks, open books for an open world”. Retrieved 25 October 2020. 
  24. “Nintendo Household Laptop (Famicom) Teardown” (in en). 1 July 2010. Retrieved 29 October 2020. 
  25. “Famicom vs NES”. 16 Could 2014. 
  26. “Nerdly Pleasures: Famicom Growth Audio Overview”. four August 2017. 
  27. Tappin, Steve (5 August 2016). “30 years of Samus Aran: a feminist icon?”. BBC Three. 
  28. “Why’s It Referred to as ‘Closing Fantasy’? Uematsu Explains” (in en-us). Retrieved 2 November 2020. 
  29. “Dungeons & Dragons Lessons Impressed The Closing Fantasy Jobs”. 16 July 2020. Retrieved 2 November 2020. 
  30. “» Dialogue: Closing Fantasy’s D&D Origins”. Retrieved 2 November 2020. 
  31. “Turns Out Hideo Kojima HATES Steel Gear On the NES” (in en-us). Retrieved Eight November 2020. 
  32. ab Statt, Nick (26 June 2017). “Nintendo’s SNES Traditional has a confusingly named Closing Fantasy recreation” (in en). 
  33. “FINAL FANTASY III – new patch launched at present Sq. Enix Weblog” (in en). 
  34. “The Unique NES Console Had a Movement Management Joystick 15 Years Earlier than the Nintendo Wii Did” (in en-us). Gizmodo. Retrieved 25 October 2020. 

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