E-Commerce and E-Enterprise/Print model – Wikibooks, open books for an open world

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Preface to the First Version[edit]

One of many many challenges dealing with the international locations within the Asia-Pacific at present is getting ready their societies and governments for globalization and the data and communication revolution. Coverage-makers, enterprise executives, NGO activists, teachers, and unusual residents are more and more involved with the necessity to make their societies aggressive within the emergent data financial system.

The e-ASEAN Process Drive and the UNDP Asia Pacific Growth Info Programme (UNDP-APDIP) share the assumption that with enabling data and communication applied sciences (ICTs), international locations can face the problem of the data age. With ICTs they will leap forth to greater ranges of social, financial and political improvement. We hope that in making this leap, coverage and decision-makers, planners, researchers, improvement practitioners, opinion-makers, and others will discover this sequence of e-primers on the data financial system, society, and polity helpful.

The e-primers goal to offer readers with a transparent understanding of the assorted terminologies, definitions, developments, and points related to the data age. The primers are written in easy, easy-to-understand language. They supply examples, case research, classes realized, and finest practices that may assist planners and resolution makers in addressing pertinent points and crafting insurance policies and methods applicable for the data financial system.

The current sequence of e-primers consists of the next titles:

  1. The Info Age
  2. Nets, Webs and the Info Infrastructure
  3. e-Commerce and e-Enterprise
  4. Authorized and Regulatory Points for the Info Financial system
  5. e-Authorities
  6. ICT and Training
  7. Genes, Expertise and Coverage: An Introduction to Biotechnology

These e-primers are additionally obtainable on-line at http://www.apdip.internet/publications/iespprimers

The primers are delivered to you by UNDP-APDIP, which seeks to create an ICT enabling atmosphere by way of advocacy and coverage reform within the Asia-Pacific area, and the e-ASEAN Process Drive, an ICT for improvement initiative of the 10-member Affiliation of Southeast Asian Nations. We welcome your views on new subjects and points on which the e-primers could also be helpful.

Lastly, we thank all who’ve been concerned with this sequence of e-primers-writers, researchers, peer reviewers and the manufacturing crew.

Roberto R. Romulo
Chairman (2000-2002)
e-ASEAN Process Drive
Manila, Philippines

Shahid Akhtar
Program Coordinator
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia


Within the rising world financial system, e-commerce and e-business have more and more develop into a obligatory element of enterprise technique and a powerful catalyst for financial improvement. The combination of data and communications know-how (ICT) in enterprise has revolutionized relationships inside organizations and people between and amongst organizations and people. Particularly, using ICT in enterprise has enhanced productiveness, inspired higher buyer participation, and enabled mass customization, in addition to decreasing prices.

With developments within the Web and Net-based applied sciences, distinctions between conventional markets and the worldwide digital marketplace-such as enterprise capital dimension, amongst others-are steadily being narrowed down. The secret is strategic positioning, the power of an organization to find out rising alternatives and make the most of the required human capital abilities (reminiscent of mental sources) to take advantage of these alternatives by way of an e-business technique that’s easy, workable and practicable inside the context of a worldwide data milieu and new financial atmosphere. With its impact of leveling the taking part in discipline, e-commerce coupled with the suitable technique and coverage method allows small and medium scale enterprises to compete with massive and capital-rich companies.

On one other aircraft, growing international locations are given elevated entry to the worldwide market, the place they compete with and complement the extra developed economies. Most, if not all, growing international locations are already taking part in e-commerce, both as sellers or consumers. Nevertheless, to facilitate e-commerce development in these international locations, the comparatively underdeveloped data infrastructure have to be improved. Among the many areas for coverage intervention are:

  • Excessive Web entry prices, together with connection service charges, communication charges, and internet hosting costs for web sites with adequate bandwidth;
  • Restricted availability of bank cards and a nationwide bank card system;
  • Underdeveloped transportation infrastructure leading to sluggish and unsure supply of products and companies;
  • Community safety issues and inadequate safety safeguards;
  • Lack of expert human sources and key applied sciences (i.e., insufficient skilled IT workforce);
  • Content material restriction on nationwide safety and different public coverage grounds, which drastically have an effect on enterprise within the discipline of data companies, such because the media and leisure sectors;
  • Cross-border points, reminiscent of the popularity of transactions beneath legal guidelines of different ASEAN member-countries, certification companies, enchancment of supply strategies and customs facilitation; and
  • The comparatively low price of labor, which means {that a} shift to a relatively capital intensive resolution (together with investments on the advance of the bodily and community infrastructure) isn’t obvious.

It’s acknowledged that within the Info Age, Web commerce is a strong device within the financial development of growing international locations. Whereas there are indications of e-commerce patronage amongst massive corporations in growing international locations, there appears to be little and negligible use of the Web for commerce amongst small and medium sized corporations. E-commerce guarantees higher enterprise for SMEs and sustainable financial improvement for growing international locations. Nevertheless, that is premised on sturdy political will and good governance, in addition to on a accountable and supportive non-public sector inside an efficient coverage framework. This primer seeks to offer coverage pointers towards this finish.

What’s e-commerce?[edit]

Digital commerce or e-commerce refers to a variety of on-line enterprise actions for services. [1] It additionally pertains to “any type of enterprise transaction by which the events work together electronically relatively than by bodily exchanges or direct bodily contact.” [2]

E-commerce is often related to shopping for and promoting over the Web, or conducting any transaction involving the switch of possession or rights to make use of items or companies by way of a computer-mediated community. [3] Although widespread, this definition isn’t complete sufficient to seize current developments on this new and revolutionary enterprise phenomenon. A extra full definition is: E-commerce is using digital communications and digital data processing know-how in enterprise transactions to create, remodel, and redefine relationships for worth creation between or amongst organizations, and between organizations and people. [4]

Worldwide Information Corp (IDC) estimates the worth of worldwide e-commerce in 2000 at US$350.38 billion. That is projected to climb to as excessive as US$3.14 trillion by 2004. IDC additionally predicts a rise in Asia’s proportion share in worldwide e-commerce income from 5% in 2000 to 10% in 2004 (See Determine 1).

Determine 1: Worldwide E-Commerce Income, 2000 and 2004 (as a % share of every nation/area)

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Asia-Pacific e-commerce revenues are projected to extend from $76.Eight billion at year-end of 2001 to $338.5 billion by the top of 2004.

Is e-commerce the identical as e-business?

Whereas some use e-commerce and e-business interchangeably, they’re distinct ideas. In e-commerce, data and communications know-how (ICT) is utilized in inter-business or inter-organizational transactions (transactions between and amongst corporations/organizations) and in business-to-consumer transactions (transactions between corporations/organizations and people).

In e-business, alternatively, ICT is used to boost one’s enterprise. It consists of any course of {that a} enterprise group (both a for-profit, governmental or non-profit entity) conducts over a computer-mediated community. A extra complete definition of e-business is:

“The transformation of a corporation’s processes to ship further buyer worth by way of the appliance of applied sciences, philosophies and computing paradigm of the brand new financial system.”

Three major processes are enhanced in e-business: [5]

1. Manufacturing processes, which embrace procurement, ordering and replenishment of shares; processing of funds; digital hyperlinks with suppliers; and manufacturing management processes, amongst others;

2. Buyer-focused processes, which embrace promotional and advertising efforts, promoting over the Web, processing of shoppers’ buy orders and funds, and buyer assist, amongst others; and

3. Inner administration processes, which embrace worker companies, coaching, inner information-sharing, video-conferencing, and recruiting. Digital purposes improve data movement between manufacturing and gross sales forces to enhance gross sales drive productiveness. Workgroup communications and digital publishing of inner enterprise data are likewise made extra environment friendly. [6]

Is the Web financial system synonymous with e-commerce and e-business?[edit]

The Web financial system is a broader idea than e-commerce and e-business. It consists of e-commerce and e-business.

The CREC (Middle for Analysis in Digital Commerce) on the College of Texas has developed a conceptual framework for a way the Web financial system works. The framework reveals 4 layers of the Web economy-the three talked about above and a fourth known as intermediaries (see Desk 1).

Determine 2. Desk 1. Web Financial system Conceptual Body

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Primarily based on Middle for Analysis in Digital Commerce, College of Texas, “Measuring the Web Financial system,” 6 June 2000; obtainable from

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What are the several types of e-commerce?[edit]

The most important completely different sorts of e-commerce are: business-to-business (B2B); business-to-consumer (B2C); business-to-government (B2G); consumer-to-consumer (C2C); and cellular commerce (m-commerce).[edit]

What’s B2B e-commerce?

B2B e-commerce is solely outlined as e-commerce between firms. That is the kind of e-commerce that offers with relationships between and amongst companies. About 80% of e-commerce is of this sort, and most specialists predict that B2B e-commerce will proceed to develop quicker than the B2C section. The B2B market has two major parts: e-frastructure and e-markets. E-frastructure is the structure of B2B, primarily consisting of the next:

  • logistics – transportation, warehousing and distribution (e.g., Procter and Gamble);
  • utility service suppliers – deployment, internet hosting and administration of packaged software program from a central facility (e.g., Oracle and Linkshare);
  • outsourcing of features within the means of e-commerce, reminiscent of Net-hosting, safety and buyer care options (e.g., outsourcing suppliers reminiscent of eShare, NetSales, iXL Enterprises and Common Entry);
  • public sale options software program for the operation and upkeep of real-time auctions within the Web (e.g., Moai Applied sciences and OpenSite Applied sciences);
  • content material administration software program for the facilitation of Web page content material administration and supply (e.g., Interwoven and ProcureNet); and
  • Net-based commerce enablers (e.g., Commerce One, a browser-based, XML-enabled buying automation software program).

E-markets are merely outlined as Web pages the place consumers and sellers work together with one another and conduct transactions.10

The extra widespread B2B examples and finest follow fashions are IBM, Hewlett Packard (HP), Cisco and Dell. Cisco, as an example, receives over 90% of its product orders over the Web.

Most B2B purposes are within the areas of provider administration (particularly buy order processing), stock administration (i.e., managing order-ship-bill cycles), distribution administration (particularly within the transmission of delivery paperwork), channel administration (i.e., data dissemination on modifications in operational circumstances), and cost administration (e.g., digital cost methods or EPS).11

eMarketer initiatives a rise within the share of B2B e-commerce in whole world e-commerce from 79.2% in 2000 to 87% in 2004 and a consequent lower within the share of B2C e-commerce from 20.8% in 2000 to solely 13% in 2004 (Determine 3).

Determine 3. Share of B2B and B2C E-Commerce in Whole International E-Commerce (2000 and 2004)

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Likewise B2B development is method forward of B2C development within the Asia-Pacific area. In response to a 2001 eMarketer estimate, B2B revenues within the area are anticipated to exceed $300 billion by 2004.

Desk 2 reveals the projected dimension of B2B e-commerce by area for the years 2000-2004.

Determine 4. Projected B2B E-Commerce by Area, 2000-2004 ($billions)

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Field 1. Advantages of B2B E-Commerce in Creating Markets

The affect of B2B markets on the financial system of growing international locations is obvious within the following:

Transaction prices. There are three price areas which are considerably lowered by way of the conduct of B2B e-commerce. First is the discount of search prices, as consumers needn’t undergo a number of intermediaries to seek for details about suppliers, merchandise and costs as in a standard provide chain. When it comes to effort, money and time spent, the Web is a extra environment friendly data channel than its conventional counterpart. In B2B markets, consumers and sellers are gathered collectively right into a single on-line buying and selling neighborhood, decreasing search prices even additional. Second is the discount within the prices of processing transactions (e.g. invoices, buy orders and cost schemes), as B2B permits for the automation of transaction processes and subsequently, the short implementation of the identical in comparison with different channels (reminiscent of the phone and fax). Effectivity in buying and selling processes and transactions can be enhanced by way of the B2B e-market’s capacity to course of gross sales by way of on-line auctions. Third, on-line processing improves stock administration and logistics.

Disintermediation. By way of B2B e-markets, suppliers are capable of work together and transact instantly with consumers, thereby eliminating intermediaries and distributors. Nevertheless, new types of intermediaries are rising. As an example, e-markets themselves might be thought of as intermediaries as a result of they arrive between suppliers and clients within the provide chain.

Transparency in pricing.Among the many extra evident advantages of e-markets is the rise in value transparency. The gathering of numerous consumers and sellers in a single e-market reveals market value data and transaction processing to contributors. The Web permits for the publication of data on a single buy or transaction, making the data readily accessible and obtainable to all members of the e-market. Elevated value transparency has the impact of flattening value differentials available in the market. On this context, consumers are offered way more time to check costs and make higher shopping for choices. Furthermore, B2B e-markets increase borders for dynamic and negotiated pricing whereby a number of consumers and sellers collectively take part in price-setting and two-way auctions. In such environments, costs might be set by way of automated matching of bids and presents. Within the e-marketplace, the necessities of each consumers and sellers are thus aggregated to succeed in aggressive costs, that are decrease than these ensuing from particular person actions.

Economies of scale and community results. The speedy development of B2B e-markets creates conventional supply-side cost-based economies of scale. Moreover, the bringing collectively of a major variety of consumers and sellers gives the demand-side economies of scale or community results. Every further incremental participant within the e-market creates worth for all contributors within the demand aspect. Extra contributors type a important mass, which is essential in attracting extra customers to an e-market.

What’s B2C e-commerce?

Enterprise-to-consumer e-commerce, or commerce between firms and customers, entails clients gathering data; buying bodily items (i.e., tangibles reminiscent of books or client merchandise) or data items (or items of digital materials or digitized content material, reminiscent of software program, or e-books); and, for data items, receiving merchandise over an digital community.12

It’s the second largest and the earliest type of e-commerce. Its origins might be traced to on-line retailing (or e-tailing).13 Thus, the extra widespread B2C enterprise fashions are the web retailing firms reminiscent of,,, Barnes and Noble and ToysRus. Different B2C examples involving data items are E-Commerce and Travelocity.

The extra widespread purposes of this sort of e-commerce are within the areas of buying merchandise and knowledge, and private finance administration, which pertains to the administration of non-public investments and funds with using on-line banking instruments (e.g., Quicken).14

eMarketer estimates that worldwide B2C e-commerce revenues will enhance from US$59.7 billion in 2000 to US$428.1 billion by 2004. On-line retailing transactions make up a major share of this market. eMarketer additionally estimates that within the Asia-Pacific area, B2C revenues, whereas registering a modest determine in comparison with B2B, nonetheless went as much as $8.2 billion by the top of 2001, with that determine doubling on the finish of 2002-at whole worldwide B2C gross sales beneath 10%.

B2C e-commerce reduces transactions prices (significantly search prices) by rising client entry to data and permitting customers to search out probably the most aggressive value for a services or products. B2C e-commerce additionally reduces market entry obstacles since the price of placing up and sustaining a Web page is less expensive than putting in a “brick-and-mortar” construction for a agency. Within the case of data items, B2C e-commerce is much more engaging as a result of it saves corporations from factoring within the further price of a bodily distribution community. Furthermore, for international locations with a rising and sturdy Web inhabitants, delivering data items turns into more and more possible.

What’s B2G e-commerce?

Enterprise-to-government e-commerce or B2G is usually outlined as commerce between firms and the general public sector. It refers to using the Web for public procurement, licensing procedures, and different government-related operations. This type of e-commerce has two options: first, the general public sector assumes a pilot/main position in establishing e-commerce; and second, it’s assumed that the general public sector has the best want for making its procurement system simpler.15

Net-based buying insurance policies enhance the transparency of the procurement course of (and reduces the chance of irregularities). Up to now, nevertheless, the dimensions of the B2G e-commerce market as a element of whole e-commerce is insignificant, as authorities e-procurement methods stay undeveloped.

What’s C2C e-commerce?

Client-to-consumer e-commerce or C2C is solely commerce between non-public people or customers.

This kind of e-commerce is characterised by the expansion of digital marketplaces and on-line auctions, significantly in vertical industries the place corporations/companies can bid for what they need from amongst a number of suppliers.16 It maybe has the best potential for growing new markets.

This kind of e-commerce is available in a minimum of three types:

  • auctions facilitated at a portal, reminiscent of eBay, which permits on-line real-time bidding on gadgets being bought within the Net;
  • peer-to-peer methods, such because the Napster mannequin (a protocol for sharing information between customers utilized by chat boards just like IRC) and different file change and later cash change fashions; and
  • labeled advertisements at portal websites reminiscent of Excite Classifieds and eWanted, (an interactive, on-line market the place consumers and sellers can negotiate and which options “Purchaser Leads & Need Adverts”).

Client-to-business (C2B) transactions contain reverse auctions, which empower the patron to drive transactions. A concrete instance of this when competing airways provides a traveler finest journey and ticket presents in response to the traveler’s publish that she needs to fly from New York to San Francisco.

There’s little data on the relative dimension of worldwide C2C e-commerce. Nevertheless, C2C figures of widespread C2C websites reminiscent of eBay and Napster point out that this market is kind of massive. These websites produce tens of millions of {dollars} in gross sales on daily basis.

Benefits of C2C websites

Client to client e-commerce has many advantages. The first profit to customers is discount in price. Shopping for advert house on different e-commerce websites is dear. Sellers can publish their gadgets without spending a dime or with minimal cost relying on the C2C web site. C2C web sites type an ideal platform for consumers and sellers who want to purchase and promote associated merchandise. The flexibility to search out associated merchandise results in a rise within the customer to buyer conversion ratio. Enterprise house owners can cheaply keep C2C web sites and enhance income with out the extra prices of distribution places. instance of a C2C e-commerce web site is Esty, a web site that enables customers to purchase and promote handmade or classic gadgets and provides together with artwork, pictures, clothes, jewellery, meals, tub and wonder merchandise, quilts, knick-knacks, and toys.

Disadvantages of C2C websites

There are a few disadvantages to those sort of websites as effectively.Doing transaction on these sort of internet sites requires co-operation between the customer and vendor.It has been famous many occasions that these two don’t co-operate with one another after a transaction has been made.They don’t share the transaction data which can be by way of credit score or debit card or web banking.This may end up in on-line fraud because the purchaser and vendor are usually not very effectively versed with one another.This may result in lawsuit being imposed on both ends or additionally on the positioning if it has not talked about the disclaimer in its phrases and circumstances.This will additionally hamper the c2c web site’s repute.Corporations which deal with client to client ecommerce web sites appear to have changing into very cautious to forestall on-line scams.

What’s m-commerce?

M-commerce (cellular commerce) is the shopping for and promoting of products and companies by way of wi-fi technology-i.e., handheld units reminiscent of mobile telephones and private digital assistants (PDAs). Japan is seen as a worldwide chief in m-commerce.

As content material supply over wi-fi units turns into quicker, safer, and scalable, some consider that m-commerce will surpass wireline e-commerce as the strategy of selection for digital commerce transactions. This might be true for the Asia-Pacific the place there are extra cell phone customers than there are Web customers.

Industries affected by m-commerce embrace:

  • Monetary companies, together with cellular banking (when clients use their handheld units to entry their accounts and pay their payments), in addition to brokerage companies (by which inventory quotes might be displayed and buying and selling performed from the identical handheld machine);
  • Telecommunications, by which service modifications, invoice cost and account opinions can all be performed from the identical handheld machine;
  • Service/retail, as customers are given the power to put and pay for orders on-the-fly; and
  • Info companies, which embrace the supply of leisure, monetary information, sports activities figures and visitors updates to a single cellular machine.17

Forrester Analysis predicts US$3.Four billion gross sales closed utilizing PDA and cell telephones by 2005 (See Desk 3).

Determine 5. Desk 3. Forrester’s M-Commerce Gross sales Predictions, 2001-2005

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What forces are fueling e-commerce?[edit]

There are a minimum of three main forces fueling e-commerce: financial forces, advertising and buyer interplay forces, and know-how, significantly multimedia convergence.18

Financial forces.One of the crucial evident advantages of e-commerce is financial effectivity ensuing from the discount in communications prices, low-cost technological infrastructure, speedier and extra financial digital transactions with suppliers, decrease world data sharing and promoting prices, and cheaper customer support options.

Financial integration is both exterior or inner. Exterior integration refers back to the digital networking of firms, suppliers, clients/purchasers, and unbiased contractors into one neighborhood speaking in a digital atmosphere (with the Web as medium). Inner integration, alternatively, is the networking of the assorted departments inside a company, and of enterprise operations and processes. This permits important enterprise data to be saved in a digital type that may be retrieved immediately and transmitted electronically. Inner integration is finest exemplified by company intranets. Among the many firms with environment friendly company intranets are Procter and Gamble, IBM, Nestle and Intel.

Field 2. SESAMi.NET.: Linking Asian Markets by way of B2B Hubs

SESAMi.NET is Asia’s largest B2B e-hub, a digital change integrating and connecting companies (small, medium or massive) to buying and selling companions, e-marketplaces and inner enterprise methods for the aim of sourcing out provides, shopping for and promoting items and companies on-line in actual time. The e-hub serves as the middle for administration of content material and the processing of enterprise transactions with assist companies reminiscent of monetary clearance and knowledge companies.

It’s strategically and dynamically linked to the International Buying and selling Net (GTW), the world’s largest community of buying and selling communities on the Web. Due to this crucial hyperlink, SESAMi reaches an in depth community of regional, vertical and industry-specific interoperable B2B e-markets throughout the globe.

Market forces. Firms are inspired to make use of e-commerce in advertising and promotion to seize worldwide markets, each large and small. The Web is likewise used as a medium for enhanced customer support and assist. It’s a lot simpler for firms to offer their goal customers with extra detailed product and repair data utilizing the Web.

Field 3. Brazil’s Submarino19: Enhancing Buyer Service by way of the Web

Brazil’s Submarino is a basic instance of profitable use of the Web for improved customer support and assist. From being an area São Paulo B2C e-commerce firm promoting books, CDs, video cassettes, DVDs, toys, digital and laptop merchandise in Brazil, it expanded to develop into the most important firm of its sort in Argentina, Mexico, Spain and Portugal. Near a 3rd of the 1.Four million Web customers in Brazil have made purchases by way of this web site. To boost customer support, Submarino has diversified into providing logistical and technological infrastructure to different retailers, which incorporates expertise and experience in credit score evaluation, monitoring orders and product comparability methods.

Expertise forces. The event of ICT is a key issue within the development of e-commerce. As an example, technological advances in digitizing content material, compression and the promotion of open methods know-how have paved the way in which for the convergence of communication companies into one single platform. This in flip has made communication extra environment friendly, quicker, simpler, and extra economical as the necessity to arrange separate networks for phone companies, tv broadcast, cable tv, and Web entry is eradicated. From the standpoint of corporations/companies and customers, having just one data supplier means decrease communications prices.20

Furthermore, the precept of common entry might be made extra achievable with convergence. At current the excessive prices of putting in landlines in sparsely populated rural areas is a disincentive to telecommunications firms to put in telephones in these areas. Putting in landlines in rural areas can develop into extra engaging to the non-public sector if revenues from these landlines are usually not restricted to native and lengthy distance phone costs, but additionally embrace cable TV and Web costs. This improvement will guarantee reasonably priced entry to data even by these in rural areas and can spare the federal government the difficulty and price of putting in costly landlines.21

What are the parts of a typical profitable e-commerce transaction loop?[edit]

E-commerce doesn’t refer merely to a agency placing up a Web page for the aim of promoting items to consumers over the Web. For e-commerce to be a aggressive different to conventional industrial transactions and for a agency to maximise the advantages of e-commerce, plenty of technical in addition to enabling points must be thought of. A typical e-commerce transaction loop entails the next main gamers and corresponding requisites:

The Vendor ought to have the next parts:

  • A company Web page with e-commerce capabilities (e.g., a safe transaction server);
  • A company intranet in order that orders are processed in an environment friendly method; and
  • IT-literate workers to handle the data flows and keep the e-commerce system.

Transaction companions embrace:

  • Banking establishments that supply transaction clearing companies (e.g., processing bank card funds and digital fund transfers);
  • Nationwide and worldwide freight firms to allow the motion of bodily items inside, round and in another country. For business-to-consumer transactions, the system should supply a method for cost-efficient transport of small packages (such that buying books over the Web, for instance, isn’t prohibitively costlier than shopping for from an area retailer); and
  • Authentication authority that serves as a trusted third celebration to make sure the integrity and safety of transactions.

Customers (in a business-to-consumer transaction) who:

  • Type a important mass of the inhabitants with entry to the Web and disposable revenue enabling widespread use of bank cards; and
  • Possess a mindset for buying items over the Web relatively than by bodily inspecting gadgets.

Corporations/Companies (in a business-to-business transaction) that collectively type a important mass of firms (particularly inside provide chains) with Web entry and the aptitude to put and take orders over the Web.

Authorities, to ascertain:

  • A authorized framework governing e-commerce transactions (together with digital paperwork, signatures, and the like); and
  • Authorized establishments that may implement the authorized framework (i.e., legal guidelines and rules) and defend customers and companies from fraud, amongst others.

And eventually, the Web, the profitable use of which is dependent upon the next:

  • A strong and dependable Web infrastructure; and
  • A pricing construction that doesn’t penalize customers for spending time on and shopping for items over the Web (e.g., a flat month-to-month cost for each ISP entry and native telephone calls).

For e-commerce to develop, the above requisites and components must be in place. The least developed issue is an obstacle to the elevated uptake of e-commerce as a complete. As an example, a rustic with a superb Web infrastructure is not going to have excessive e-commerce figures if banks don’t supply assist and success companies to e-commerce transactions. In international locations which have important e-commerce figures, a constructive suggestions loop reinforces every of those components.22

How is the Web related to e-commerce?[edit]

The Web permits folks from everywhere in the world to get linked inexpensively and reliably. As a technical infrastructure, it’s a world assortment of networks, linked to share data utilizing a typical set of protocols. Additionally, as an unlimited community of individuals and knowledge, the Web is an enabler for e-commerce because it permits companies to showcase and promote their services on-line and provides potential clients, prospects, and enterprise companions entry to details about these companies and their services that may result in buy.

Earlier than the Web was utilized for industrial functions, firms used non-public networks-such because the EDI or Digital Information Interchange-to transact enterprise with one another. That was the early type of e-commerce. Nevertheless, putting in and sustaining non-public networks was very costly. With the Web, e-commerce unfold quickly due to the decrease prices concerned and since the Web is predicated on open requirements.25

How essential is an intranet for a enterprise participating in e-commerce?[edit]

An intranet aids within the administration of inner company data which may be interconnected with an organization’s e-commerce transactions (or transactions performed outdoors the intranet). Inasmuch because the intranet permits for the instantaneous movement of inner data, very important data is concurrently processed and matched with knowledge flowing from exterior e-commerce transactions, permitting for the environment friendly and efficient integration of the company’s organizational processes. On this context, company features, choices and processes involving e-commerce actions are extra coherent and arranged.

The proliferation of intranets has induced a shift from a hierarchical command-and-control group to an information-based group. This shift has implications for managerial tasks, communication and knowledge flows, and workgroup buildings.

Apart from decreasing the price of doing enterprise, what are the benefits of e-commerce for companies?[edit]

E-commerce serves as an “equalizer”. It allows start-up and small- and medium-sized enterprises to succeed in the worldwide market.

Field 4. Leveling the Taking part in Discipline by way of E-commerce: The Case of is a digital bookstore. It doesn’t have a single sq. foot of bricks and mortar retail ground house. Nonetheless, is posting an annual gross sales price of roughly $1.2 billion, equal to about 235 Barnes & Noble (B&N) superstores. As a result of efficiencies of promoting over the Net, Amazon has spent solely $56 million on mounted property, whereas B&N has spent about $118 million for 235 superstores. (To be truthful, Amazon has but to show a revenue, however this doesn’t obviate the purpose that in lots of industries doing enterprise by way of e-commerce is cheaper than conducting enterprise in a standard brick-and-mortar firm.)

Nevertheless, this doesn’t low cost the purpose that with no good e-business technique, e-commerce could in some instances discriminate in opposition to SMEs as a result of it reveals proprietary pricing data. A sound e-business plan doesn’t completely disregard outdated financial system values. The dot-com bust is proof of this.

Field 5. Classes from the Dot Com Frenzy

In response to statistics, about 862 dot-com firms have failed because the top of the dot-com bust in January 2000. Majority of those had been e-commerce and content material firms. The shutdown of those firms was adopted by the folding up of Web-content suppliers, infrastructure firms, Web service suppliers, and different suppliers of dial-up and broadband Web-access companies.26

From the angle of the funding banks, the dot-com frenzy might be likened to a raffle the place the large cash gamers had been the enterprise capitalists and people laying their bets on the desk had been the small buyers. The bust was primarily brought on by the gamers’ unfamiliarity with the sector, coupled with failure to deal with the velocity of the Web revolution and the quantity of capital in circulation.27

Web entrepreneurs set the costs of their items and companies at very low ranges to achieve market share and appeal to enterprise capitalists to infuse funding. The crash started when buyers began demanding arduous earnings for sky-high valuations. The Web firms additionally spent an excessive amount of on overhead earlier than even gaining a market share.28

E-commerce makes “mass customization” doable. E-commerce purposes on this space embrace easy-to-use ordering methods that enable clients to decide on and order merchandise based on their private and distinctive specs. As an example, a automotive manufacturing firm with an e-commerce technique permitting for on-line orders can have new automobiles constructed inside just a few days (as a substitute of the a number of weeks it at the moment takes to construct a brand new automobile) based mostly on buyer’s specs. This may work extra successfully if an organization’s manufacturing course of is superior and built-in into the ordering system.

E-commerce permits “community manufacturing.” This refers back to the parceling out of the manufacturing course of to contractors who’re geographically dispersed however who’re linked to one another by way of laptop networks. The advantages of community manufacturing embrace: discount in prices, extra strategic goal advertising, and the facilitation of promoting add-on merchandise, companies, and new methods when they’re wanted. With community manufacturing, an organization can assign duties inside its non-core competencies to factories everywhere in the world specializing in such duties (e.g., the meeting of particular parts).

How is e-commerce useful to the patron?[edit]

In C2B transactions, clients/customers are given extra affect over what and the way merchandise are made and the way companies are delivered, thereby broadening client selections. E-commerce permits for a quicker and extra open course of, with clients having higher management.

E-commerce makes data on merchandise and the market as a complete available and accessible, and will increase value transparency, which allow clients to make extra applicable buying choices.

How are enterprise relationships remodeled by way of e-commerce?[edit]

E-commerce transforms outdated financial system relationships (vertical/linear relationships) to new financial system relationships characterised by end-to-end relationship administration options (built-in or prolonged relationships).

How does e-commerce hyperlink clients, staff, suppliers, distributors and rivals?[edit]

E-commerce facilitates group networks, whereby small corporations depend upon “companion” corporations for provides and product distribution to handle buyer calls for extra successfully.

To handle the chain of networks linking clients, staff, suppliers, distributors, and even rivals, an built-in or prolonged provide chain administration resolution is required. Provide chain administration (SCM) is outlined because the supervision of supplies, data, and funds as they transfer from provider to producer to wholesaler to retailer to client. It entails the coordination and integration of those flows each inside and amongst firms. The purpose of any efficient provide chain administration system is well timed provision of products or companies to the following hyperlink within the chain (and finally, the discount of stock inside every hyperlink).29

There are three foremost flows in SCM, particularly:

  • The product movement, which incorporates the motion of products from a provider to a buyer, in addition to any buyer returns or service wants;
  • The data movement, which entails the transmission of orders and the replace of the standing of supply; and
  • The funds movement, which consists of credit score phrases, cost schedules, and consignment and title possession preparations.

Some SCM purposes are based mostly on open knowledge fashions that assist the sharing of information each inside and out of doors the enterprise, known as the prolonged enterprise, and consists of key suppliers, producers, and finish clients of a particular firm. Shared knowledge resides in numerous database methods, or knowledge warehouses, at a number of completely different websites and firms. Sharing this knowledge “upstream” (with an organization’s suppliers) and “downstream” (with an organization’s purchasers) permits SCM purposes to enhance the time-to-market of merchandise and scale back prices. It additionally permits all events within the provide chain to raised handle present sources and plan for future wants.30

Determine 6. Previous Financial system Relationships vs. New Financial system Relationships

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What’s Google AdSense and the way does it work for e-commerce[edit]

Google AdSense is a service supplied by Google that enables web site publishers to promote on Google. It’s Google’s no 1 income. AdSense is used to promote when customers sort in key phrases in Google’s search engine. Adverts are positioned on the suitable hand aspect of the display. The advertisements are textual content based mostly and permit for hyperlinks to the web site on the commercial as effectively.

The AdWords program determines the pricing for key phrases. AdWords is predicated on a Vickrey public sale system. It’s a sealed-bid public sale, customers submit bids not understanding what different customers bid. The very best bidder wins however the second place particular person’s bid is paid. There are professionals and cons to this sort of public sale. The winners the overwhelming majority of the time are those who bid the very best. A draw back to this sort of system is that there isn’t a value discovery, which is a market failure referred to as imperfect data.

AdSense customers generate income by having customers click on on their hyperlinks and by having them purchase what is obtainable on their web site. AdSense has been an enormous success for Google and the customers of the system.

E-Commerce Purposes: Points and Prospects[edit]

Numerous purposes of e-commerce are regularly affecting developments and prospects for enterprise over the Web, together with e-banking, e-tailing and on-line publishing/on-line retailing.

A extra developed and mature e-banking atmosphere performs an essential position in e-commerce by encouraging a shift from conventional modes of cost (i.e., money, checks or any type of paper-based authorized tender) to digital options (reminiscent of e-payment methods), thereby closing the e-commerce loop.

a) Advantages of e-Commerce

  • Expanded Geographical Attain
  • Expanded Buyer Base
  • Improve Visibility by way of Search Engine Advertising and marketing
  • Present Clients useful details about your small business
  • Accessible 24/7/365 – By no means Shut
  • Construct Buyer Loyalty
  • Discount of Advertising and marketing and Promoting Prices
  • Assortment of Buyer Information

b) Primary Advantages of e-Enterprise e-Commerce

  • Improve gross sales – that is the very first thing that individuals contemplate when coping with e-commerce
    • Reducing prices
    • Improve income
      • Understanding that income isn’t the identical as gross sales
    • Expands the dimensions of the market from regional to nationwide or nationwide to worldwide
    • Contract the market
    • Attain a slim market
      • Goal market segmentation lets you give attention to a extra
        • Choose group of shoppers
      • And subsequently have a aggressive benefits in satisfying them

What are the prevailing practices in growing international locations with respect to purchasing and paying on-line?[edit]

In most growing international locations, the cost schemes obtainable for on-line transactions are the next:

A. Conventional Cost Strategies

  • Money on supply. Many on-line transactions solely contain submitting buy orders on-line. Cost is by money upon the supply of the bodily items.
  • Financial institution funds. After ordering items on-line, cost is made by depositing money into the checking account of the corporate from which the products had been ordered. Supply is likewise accomplished the traditional method.

B. Digital Cost Strategies

  • Improvements affecting customers, embrace credit score and debit playing cards, automated teller machines (ATMs), saved worth playing cards, and e-banking.
  • Improvements enabling on-line commerce are e-cash, e-checks, sensible playing cards, and encrypted bank cards. These cost strategies are usually not too widespread in growing international locations. They’re employed by just a few massive firms in particular secured channels on a transaction foundation.
  • Improvements affecting firms pertain to cost mechanisms that banks present their purchasers, together with inter-bank transfers by way of automated clearing homes permitting cost by direct deposit.

What’s an digital cost system? Why is it essential?[edit]

An digital cost system (EPS) is a system of economic change between consumers and sellers within the on-line atmosphere that’s facilitated by a digital monetary instrument (reminiscent of encrypted bank card numbers, digital checks, or digital money) backed by a financial institution, an middleman, or by authorized tender.

EPS performs an essential position in e-commerce as a result of it closes the e-commerce loop. In growing international locations, the underdeveloped digital funds system is a severe obstacle to the expansion of e-commerce. In these international locations, entrepreneurs are usually not capable of settle for bank card funds over the Web as a consequence of authorized and enterprise considerations. The first situation is transaction safety.

The absence or inadequacy of authorized infrastructures governing the operation of e-payments can be a priority. Therefore, banks with e-banking operations make use of service agreements between themselves and their purchasers.

The comparatively undeveloped bank card {industry} in lots of growing international locations can be a barrier to e-commerce. Solely a small section of the inhabitants can purchase items and companies over the Web as a result of small bank card market base. There’s additionally the issue of the requirement of “specific consent” (i.e., a signature) by a card proprietor earlier than a transaction is taken into account valid-a requirement that doesn’t exist within the U.S. and in different developed international locations.

What’s the confidence stage of customers in using an EPS?

Many growing international locations are nonetheless cash-based economies. Money is the popular mode of cost not solely on account of safety but additionally due to anonymity, which is helpful for tax evasion functions or protecting secret what one’s cash is being spent on. For different international locations, safety considerations have rather a lot to do with a scarcity of a authorized framework for adjudicating fraud and the uncertainty of the authorized restrict on the legal responsibility related to a misplaced or stolen bank card.

In sum, among the many related points that should be resolved with respect to EPS are: client safety from fraud by way of effectivity in record-keeping; transaction privateness and security, aggressive cost companies to make sure equal entry to all customers, and the suitable to selection of establishments and cost strategies. Authorized frameworks in growing international locations also needs to start to acknowledge digital transactions and cost schemes.

What’s e-banking?

E-banking consists of acquainted and comparatively mature electronically-based merchandise in growing markets, reminiscent of phone banking, bank cards, ATMs, and direct deposit. It additionally consists of digital invoice funds and merchandise largely within the growing stage, together with stored-value playing cards (e.g., sensible playing cards/sensible cash) and Web-based saved worth merchandise.

Field 7. Cost Strategies and Safety Considerations: The Case of China

In China, whereas banks situation bank cards and whereas many use debit playing cards to attract instantly from their respective financial institution accounts, only a few folks use their bank cards for on-line cost. Money-on-delivery remains to be the most well-liked mode of e-commerce cost. Nonetheless, on-line cost is gaining reputation due to the emergence of Chinapay and Cyber Beijing, which provide a city-wide on-line cost system.

What’s the standing of e-banking in growing international locations?

E-banking in growing international locations is within the early levels of improvement. Most banking in growing international locations remains to be accomplished the traditional method. Nevertheless, there may be an rising development of on-line banking, indicating a promising future for on-line banking in these international locations. Under is a broad image of e-banking in three ASEAN international locations.

The Philippine Expertise

Within the Philippines, Citibank, Financial institution of the Philippine Islands (BPI), Philippine Nationwide Financial institution, and different massive banks pioneered e-banking within the early 1980s. Interbank networks within the nation like Megalink, Bancnet, and BPI Expressnet had been among the many earliest and largest starters of ATM (Automated Teller Machines) know-how.

BPI launched its BPI Specific On-line in January 2000. The most typical on-line monetary companies embrace deposits, fund transfers, purposes for brand new accounts, Cease Cost on issued checks, housing and auto loans, bank cards, and remittances.

The Singapore Expertise

In Singapore, greater than 28% of Web customers visited e-banking websites in Could 2001. Analysis by NetValue (an Web measurement firm) reveals that whereas the variety of folks participating in on-line banking in Singapore has elevated, the common time spent at websites decreased by roughly 4 minutes from March 2001 to Could 2001. This decline might be attributed to the truth that extra guests spend time finishing transactions, which take much less time than shopping completely different websites. In response to the survey, two out of three guests make a transaction. All main banks in Singapore have an Web presence. They provide a variety of merchandise on to customers by way of proprietary Web websites. These banks have shifted from an preliminary give attention to retail-banking to SME and company banking services.

Among the many merchandise supplied are:

  • Fund switch and cost methods;
  • Built-in B2B e-commerce product, involving product choice, buy order, bill era and cost;
  • Securities placement and underwriting and capital market actions;
  • Securities buying and selling; and
  • Retail banking.

The Malaysian Expertise

E-banking in Malaysia emerged in 1981 with the introduction of ATMs. This was adopted by tele-banking within the early 1990s the place telecommunications units had been linked to an automatic system by way of using Automated Voice Response (AVR) know-how. Then got here PC banking or desktop banking utilizing proprietary software program, which was extra widespread amongst company clients than retail clients.

On June 1, 2000, the Malaysian Financial institution formally allowed native industrial banks to supply Web banking companies. On June 15, 2000, Maybank (, one of many largest banks in Malaysia, launched the nation’s first Web banking companies. The financial institution employs 128-bit encryption know-how to safe its transactions. Different native banks in Malaysia providing e-banking companies are Southern Financial institution, Hong Leong Financial institution, HSBC Financial institution, Multi-Function Financial institution, Phileo Allied Financial institution and RHB Financial institution. Banks that supply WAP or Cell banking are OCBC Financial institution, Phileo Allied Financial institution and United Abroad Financial institution.

The most typical e-banking companies embrace banking inquiry features, invoice funds, bank card funds, fund transfers, share investing, insurance coverage, journey, digital buying, and different fundamental banking companies.37

What market components, obstacles, issues and points are affecting the expansion of e-banking in growing international locations?

Human tellers and automatic teller machines proceed to be the banking channels of selection in growing international locations. Solely a small variety of banks make use of Web banking. Among the many middle- and high-income folks in Asia questioned in a McKinsey survey, solely 2.6% reported banking over the Web in 2000. In India, Indonesia, and Thailand, the determine was as little as 1%; in Singapore and South Korea, it ranged from 5% to six%. Basically, Web banking accounted for lower than 0.1% of those clients’ banking transactions, because it did in 1999. The Web is extra generally used for opening new accounts however the numbers are negligible as lower than 0.3% of respondents used it for that goal, besides in China and the Philippines the place the figures climbed to 0.7 and 1.0%, respectively.

This sluggish uptake can’t be attributed to restricted entry to the Web since 42% of respondents stated they’d entry to computer systems and seven% stated they’d entry to the Web. The chief impediment in Asia and all through rising markets is safety. That is the primary motive for not opening on-line banking or funding accounts. Apparently, there may be additionally a choice for private contact with banks.

Entry to high-quality merchandise can be a priority. Most Asian banks are within the early levels of Web banking companies, and lots of the companies are very fundamental.

What are the developments and prospects for e-banking in these international locations?

There’s a potential for elevated uptake of e-banking in Asia. Respondents of the McKinsey survey gave the next indications:

1. Lead customers: 38% of respondents indicated their intention to open an internet account within the close to future. These lead customers undertake one-third extra transactions a month than do different customers, they usually are inclined to make use of all banking channels extra typically.

2. Followers: An extra 20% confirmed an inclination to finally open an internet account, if their major establishment had been to supply it and if there can be no further financial institution costs.

3. Rejecters: 42% (in comparison with the mixture determine of 58% for lead customers and followers) indicated no real interest in or an aversion to Web banking. You will need to word that these respondents additionally most popular consolidation and ease, i.e., proudly owning fewer banking merchandise and coping with fewer monetary establishments.

Lower than 13% of the lead customers and followers indicated some curiosity in conducting complicated actions over the Web, reminiscent of buying and selling securities or making use of for insurance coverage, bank cards, and loans. A few third of lead customers and followers confirmed an inclination to undertake solely the fundamental banking features, like ascertaining account balances and transferring cash between accounts, over the Web. 38

What’s e-tailing?[edit]

E-tailing (or digital retailing) is the promoting of retail items on the Web. It’s the most typical type of business-to-consumer (B2C) transaction.

Field 8. E-Tailing: Pioneering Traits in E-Commerce

The 12 months 1997 is taken into account the primary large 12 months for e-tailing. This was when Dell Laptop recorded multimillion greenback orders taken at its Web page. Additionally, the success of (which opened its digital doorways in 1996) inspired Barnes & Noble to open an e-tail web site. Safety considerations over taking buy orders over the Web steadily receded. In the identical 12 months, Auto-by-Tel bought its millionth automotive over the Net, and CommerceNet/Nielsen Media recorded that 10 million folks had made purchases on the Net.

What are the developments and prospects for e-tailing?

Jupiter initiatives that e-tailing will develop to $37 billion by 2002. One other estimate is that the web market will develop 45% in 2001, reaching $65 billion. Profitability will fluctuate sharply between Net-based, catalog-based and store-based retailers. There was additionally a marked discount in buyer acquisition prices for all on-line retailers from a median of $38 in 1999 to $29 in 2000.

An e-retail research performed by Retail Ahead confirmed that eight of its prime 10 e-retailers 40 had been multi-channel-that is, they don’t depend on on-line promoting alone. Determine 7 reveals the highest 10 e-tailers by revenues generated on-line for the 12 months 2001.

Determine 7. High 10 E-Retailers 41

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As well as, a research by the Boston Consulting Group and revealed that the multi-channel retail market within the U.S. expanded by 72% from 1999 to 2002, vis-àvis a compounded annual development price of 67.8% for the whole on-line marketplace for the years 1999-2002.

What’s on-line publishing? What are its most typical purposes?[edit]

On-line publishing is the method of utilizing laptop and particular varieties of software program to mix textual content and graphics to supply Net-based paperwork reminiscent of newsletters, on-line magazines and databases, brochures and different promotional supplies, books, and the like, with the Web as a medium for publication.

What are the advantages and benefits of on-line publishing to enterprise?

Among the many advantages of utilizing on-line media are low-cost common entry, the independence of time and place, and ease of distribution. These are the the explanation why the Web is considered an efficient advertising outreach medium and is usually used to boost data service.

What are the issues and points in on-line publishing?

The issues in on-line publishing might be grouped into two classes: administration challenges and public coverage points.

There are two main administration points:

The revenue query, which seeks to handle how an internet presence might be become a worthwhile one and how much enterprise mannequin would lead to probably the most income; and

The measurement situation, which pertains to the effectiveness of a Web page and the equity of costs to advertisers.

The most typical public coverage points must do with copyright safety and censorship. Many publishers are prevented from publishing on-line due to insufficient copyright safety. An essential query to be addressed is: How can current copyright protections within the print atmosphere be mapped onto the web atmosphere? Many of the options are technological relatively than authorized. The extra widespread technological options embrace encryption for paid subscribers, and knowledge utilization meters on add-in circuit boards and complex doc headers that monitor the frequency and method by which textual content is considered and used.

In on-line advertising, there may be the issue of unsolicited industrial e-mail or “spam mail.” Junk e-mail is not only annoying; additionally it is expensive. Apart from displacing regular and helpful e-mail, the most important motive why spam mail is a giant situation in on-line advertising is that important prices are shifted from the sender of such mail to the recipient. Sending bulk junk e-mail is rather a lot cheaper in comparison with receiving the identical. Junk e-mail consumes bandwidth (which an ISP purchases), making Web entry purchasers slower and thereby rising the price of Web use.42

How essential is e-commerce to SMEs in growing international locations? How large is the SME e-business market?[edit]

For SMEs in growing international locations e-commerce poses the benefits of lowered data search prices and transactions prices (i.e., enhancing effectivity of operations-reducing time for cost, credit score processing, and the like). Surveys present that data on the next is most precious to SMEs: clients and markets, product design, course of know-how, and financing supply and phrases. The Web and different ICTs facilitate entry to this data.43 As well as, the Web permits automated packaging and distribution of data (together with personalized data) to particular goal teams.

Nevertheless, there may be doubt concerning whether or not there may be sufficient data on the Net that’s related and useful for the common SME in a growing nation that may make funding in Web entry possible. Underlying that is the truth that most SMEs in growing international locations cater to native markets and subsequently rely closely on native content material and knowledge. For that reason, there’s a have to considerably enhance the quantity and high quality of native content material (together with native language content material) on the Web to make it helpful particularly to low-income entrepreneurs.44

Field. 9. ICT-4-BUS: Serving to SMEs Conquer the E-Enterprise Problem45

The Info and Communication Expertise Innovation Program for E-business and SME Growth, in any other case referred to as the ICT-4-BUS, is an initiative by the Multilateral Funding Fund and the Info Expertise for Growth Division of the Inter-American Growth Financial institution (IDB) to boost the competitiveness, productiveness and effectivity of micro-entrepreneurs and SMEs in Latin America and the Carribean by way of the supply of elevated entry to ICT options. That is in keeping with the regional and worldwide effort to attain a viable “data society.” Applications and initiatives beneath this initiative embrace the dissemination of region-wide finest practices, laptop literacy and coaching packages, and coordination efforts to facilitate important entry to credit score and financing for the profitable implementation of e-business options. The initiative serves as a strategic device and a automobile for maximizing the sturdy SME e-business market potential in Latin America manifested within the $23.51 billion e-business revenues reached amongst Latin American SMEs.46

eMarketer estimates that SME e-business revenues will enhance: from $6.53 billion to $28.53 billion in Japanese Europe, Africa and the Center East mixed; $127.25 billion in 2003 to $502.69 billion by 2005 within the Asia-Pacific area; $23.51 billion in 2003 to $89.81 billion by 2005 in Latin America; from $340.41 billion in 2003 to $971.47 billion by 2005 in Western Europe; and from $384.36 billion in 2003 to $1.18 trillion by 2005 in Northern America.

How is e-commerce helpful to growing nation entrepreneurs?

There are a minimum of 5 methods by which the Web and e-commerce are helpful for growing nation entrepreneurs:

1. It facilitates the entry of artisans47 and SMEs to world markets.

2. It facilitates the promotion and improvement of tourism of growing international locations in a worldwide scale.

3. It facilitates the advertising of agricultural and tropical merchandise within the world market.

4. It gives avenues for corporations in poorer international locations to enter into B2B and B2G provide chains.

5. It assists service-providing enterprises in growing international locations by permitting them to function extra effectively and instantly present particular companies to clients globally.

Field 10. IFAT: Empowering the Agricultural Sector by way of B2C E-Commerce

The Worldwide Federation for Various Commerce (IFAT) is a collective effort to empower the agricultural sector of growing international locations. It’s composed of 100 organizations (together with 70 organizations in growing international locations) in 42 international locations. Members of the group collectively market about $200-400 million yearly in handicrafts and agricultural merchandise from decrease revenue international locations. As well as, IFAT gives help to growing nation producers when it comes to logistical assist, high quality management, packing and export.

Field 11. Offshore Information Processing Facilities: E-commerce at Work within the Service Sector

Offshore knowledge processing facilities, which give knowledge transcription and “again workplace” features to service enterprises reminiscent of insurance coverage firms, airways, bank card firms and banks, amongst others, are prevalent in growing international locations and even in lowwage developed international locations. In reality, buyer assist name facilities of dot-coms and different ICT/e-commerce firms are thought of one of many quickest rising parts of offshore companies in these international locations. India and the Philippines delight themselves in being the most important places of offshore knowledge entry and laptop programming in Asia, with India having established a classy software program improvement functionality with extremely expert personnel to assist it.48

Creating nation SMEs within the companies sector have expanded their market with the elevated capacity to transact instantly with abroad or worldwide clients and to promote their companies. That is very true for small operators of tourism-related companies. Tourism boards lend help in compiling lists of service suppliers by class of their Web pages.

As well as, for SMEs in growing international locations the Web is a fast, straightforward, dependable and cheap means for buying on-line technical assist and software program instruments and purposes, lodging technical inquiries, requesting repairs, and ordering substitute elements or new tooling.49

The Web can be instrumental in enabling SMEs in growing international locations to hitch dialogue teams with their friends throughout the globe who’re engaged in the identical enterprise, and thereby share data, experiences and even options to particular technical issues. That is useful particularly to entrepreneurs who’re geographically remoted from friends in the identical enterprise.50

What’s the extent of ICT utilization amongst SMEs in growing international locations?

At the moment the Web is mostly utilized by SME corporations in growing international locations for communication and analysis; the Web is least used for e-commerce. E-mail is taken into account an essential technique of communication. Nevertheless, the extent of use is restricted by the SMEs’ recognition of the significance of face-to-face interplay with their consumers and suppliers. The extent of confidence of utilizing e-mail for communication with each suppliers and consumers will increase solely after an preliminary face-to-face interplay. E-mail, subsequently, turns into a method for sustaining a enterprise relationship. It’s usually step one in e-commerce, because it permits a agency to entry data and keep communications with its suppliers and consumers. This may then result in extra superior e-commerce actions.

One of many key obstacles to e-commerce improvement within the growing world is safe cost gateways. Even in Egypt, with a well-developed worldwide tourism market, native SMEs are largely unable to take safe funds on-line. Cost gateway suppliers are nonetheless not working within the growing world, and native banks usually tend to develop customised options relatively than open supply plug ins for internet sites.

ICT utilization patterns amongst SMEs in growing international locations present a development from using the Web for communication (primarily e-mail) to make use of of the Web for analysis and knowledge search, to the event of Web pages with static details about a agency’s items or companies, and at last to make use of of the Web for e-commerce.

Field 12. E-Mail and the Web in Creating Nations

Up to now, e-mail is the predominant and most essential use of the Web in growing international locations. In Bangladesh, 82% of Web use is attributed to e-mail, vis-à-vis 5% in america. The Net accounts for about 70% of Web use within the U.S.51 That is as a result of comparatively excessive Web entry prices in most growing international locations. Nevertheless, the Web is taken into account an affordable, though imperfect, different to the phone or facsimile machine-i.e., it’s cheap as a result of greater velocity of data transmission, and imperfect as a result of it doesn’t present two-way communication in actual time in contrast to the phone.52

Many corporations use the Web to speak with suppliers and clients solely as a channel for sustaining enterprise relationships. As soon as corporations develop a sure stage of confidence on the advantages of e-mail within the conduct of enterprise transactions and the potential of making gross sales from its use, they often contemplate the choice of growing their very own Web page.

Research commissioned by The Asia Basis on the extent of ICT use amongst SMEs within the Philippines, Thailand and Indonesia, present widespread use patterns, reminiscent of:

1. extensive use of the Web for e-mail due to the acknowledged price and effectivity advantages;

2. use of Web pages extra for promotion than for on-line gross sales or e-commerce, indicating that SMEs in these international locations are nonetheless within the early levels of e-commerce;

3. widespread use of the Web for fundamental analysis; and

4. inclination to have interaction extra in offline transactions than in e-commerce due to safety considerations.

SMEs undergo completely different levels in adopting e-commerce. They begin with making a Web page primarily to promote and promote the corporate and its services. When these corporations start producing visitors, inquiries and, finally, gross sales by way of their Web pages, they’re prone to have interaction in e-commerce.

Field 13. Ladies and International Net-Primarily based Advertising and marketing: The Case of the Guyanese Weavers’ Cooperative

The Guyanese Weavers’ Cooperative is a corporation based by 300 ladies from the Wapishana and Macushi tribes in Guyana, northern South America. The cooperative revived the traditional artwork of hammock weaving utilizing 19th century accounts and illustrations of the hammocks made by European vacationers and the cultivation of cotton on small household plots and hand-weaving. The group then employed somebody to create a Web page, which was instrumental in bringing their wares on-line. Not lengthy after, within the mid-1990s, the group of weavers (the Rupununi Weavers Society) was capable of promote hammocks to Queen Elizabeth, Prince Philip, the Smithsonian Institute, and the British Museum. Since 1998, they’ve bought about 20 hammocks by way of the Web at $1,000 per piece. This case additionally reveals that SMEs have nice potential to compete in markets for high-end, bespoke merchandise regardless of the low gross sales quantity.

As well as, many Web pages offering market and technical data, agronomic recommendation and threat administration instruments for SMEs (to espresso and tea farmers in growing international locations, for instance) have emerged.53

What are the obstacles, issues and points confronted by SMEs of their use of ICT in enterprise or in participating in e-commerce?

In response to current surveys performed in choose Southeast Asian international locations, the perceived exterior obstacles to e-commerce embrace the unfavorable financial atmosphere, the excessive price of ICT, and safety considerations. The interior obstacles are poor inner communications infrastructure inside SME corporations, lack of ICT consciousness and data in addition to inadequacy of ICT-capable and literate managers and staff, inadequate monetary sources, and the perceived lack of relevance or value-added of ICTs to their enterprise.

Basically, the primary problems with concern that act as obstacles to the elevated uptake of data know-how and e-commerce are the next:

  • Ignorance and understanding of the worth of e-commerce. Most SMEs in growing international locations haven’t taken up e-commerce or use the Web as a result of they fail to spot the worth of e-commerce to their companies. Many assume e-commerce is suited solely to large firms and that it’s a further price that won’t convey any main returns on funding.
  • Lack of ICT data and abilities. Folks play a significant position within the improvement of e-commerce. Nevertheless, know-how literacy remains to be very restricted in most growing international locations. There’s a scarcity of expert staff amongst SMEs, a key situation in shifting ahead with utilizing data know-how in enterprise. There are additionally doubts about whether or not SMEs can certainly reap the benefits of the advantages of accessing the worldwide market by way of the Web, given their restricted capabilities in design, distribution, advertising, and post-sale assist. Whereas the Web might be helpful in accessing worldwide design experience, SMEs are usually not assured that they will command a premium on the costs for his or her items until they provide product improvements. They’ll, nevertheless, capitalize on returns on the premise that they’re the low price suppliers.

Moreover, most of the time, the premium in design has already been captured-for instance, within the textile merchandise industry-by the branded style homes. SMEs doubt whether or not Net presence will facilitate their very own model recognition on a worldwide scale.54

  • Monetary prices. Price is an important situation. The preliminary funding for the adoption of a brand new know-how is proportionately heavier for small than for big corporations. The excessive price of computer systems and Web entry is a barrier to the uptake of e-commerce. Confronted with budgetary constraints, SMEs contemplate the extra prices of ICT spending as too large an funding with out speedy returns.

Many SMEs discover advertising on the Web costly. Having a Web page isn’t equal to having a well-visited Web page. One motive is that there could also be no important mass of customers. One more reason is the problem of anonymity for SMEs. Due to the presence of quite a few entrepreneurs within the Web, plainly model recognition issues as a way to be aggressive. Furthermore, it isn’t sufficient {that a} Web page is informative and user-friendly; it also needs to be up to date steadily. Search engines like google and yahoo should direct queries to the Web page, and information concerning the web site have to be broadly disseminated. Considerably, the expertise of many OECD international locations attests to the truth that one of the best e-marketing methods are usually not higher substitutes for the traditional type of media.55 One resolution could also be to encourage a number of SMEs to mixture their data on a typical Web page, which in flip would have the duty of constructing recognition/branding by hyperlinking or updating, for instance.

  • Infrastructure. The nationwide community/bodily infrastructure of many growing international locations is characterised by comparatively low teledensity, a serious barrier to e-commerce. There are additionally comparatively few foremost telephone strains for enterprise use amongst SMEs.
  • Safety. Making certain safety of funds and privateness of on-line transactions is essential to the widespread acceptance and adoption of e-commerce. Whereas the suitable insurance policies are in place to facilitate e-commerce, lack of belief remains to be a barrier to utilizing the Web to make on-line transactions. Furthermore, bank card utilization in lots of growing international locations remains to be comparatively low.56

Additionally, customers are reluctant to make use of the Web for conducting transactions with SMEs as a result of uncertainty of the SMEs’ return coverage and use of information.

  • Different privacy- and security-related points.57 Whereas safety is often used because the catch-all phrase for a lot of completely different the explanation why people and corporations don’t have interaction in intensive e-commerce and use of Web-based applied sciences, there are different associated causes and unresolved points, reminiscent of tax evasion, privateness and anonymity, fraud adjudication, and authorized legal responsibility on bank cards. In lots of international locations, money is most popular not just for safety causes but additionally due to a need for anonymity on the a part of these engaged in tax evasion or those that merely don’t want others to know the place they’re spending their cash. Others fear that there’s lack of authorized safety in opposition to fraud (i.e., there isn’t a provision for adjudicating fraud and there could also be no authorized restrict on legal responsibility, say, for a misplaced or stolen bank card). It’s obligatory to tell apart these considerations from the overall safety considerations (i.e., transaction privateness, safety and safety) since they might not be addressed by the employment of an efficient encryption methodology (or different safety measure).

Is e-commerce useful to the ladies sector? How has it helped in empowering ladies?[edit]

Basically, the Web and e-commerce have empowered sectors beforehand discriminated in opposition to. The Guyanese expertise can attest to this.

Ladies have gained a foothold in lots of e-commerce areas. In B2C e-commerce, most success tales of women-empowered enterprises must do with advertising distinctive merchandise to customers with disposable revenue. The customers are discovered largely in developed international locations, implying that there’s a want for adequate infrastructure for the supply of merchandise for the enterprise to prosper and set up credibility. For instance, if an enterprise can enterprise into producing digital items reminiscent of music or software program that may be transmitted electronically or if such items might be distributed and/or delivered domestically, then that is the choice that’s extra possible and practicable.

Apart from the Guyanese expertise, there are various extra profitable instances of e-commerce ventures that the ladies sector can emulate. Some concrete examples are: (, a enterprise involving the advertising muffins in Peru run by ladies in a number of Peruvian cities; Ethiogift (, involving Ethiopians shopping for sheep and different presents over the Web to ship to their households in different elements of the nation, thereby allotting with the bodily supply of products overseas; and the Rural Ladies’s Affiliation of the Northern Province of South Africa, which makes use of the Net to promote its chickens to wealthy purchasers in Pietersburg.58

Whereas a lot of the examples contain B2C e-commerce, it have to be famous that ladies are already engaged in wholesale distribution companies in growing international locations. Thus, they will start to penetrate B2B or B2G markets.

Field 14. Ladies Empowerment in Bangladesh: The Case of the Grameen Village Cellphone Community

The Grameen Village Cellphone Community is a basic instance of girls’s empowerment in Bangladesh. Operators of the village telephones are all poor ladies (who’ve been chosen for his or her clear and powerful credit score document). These village telephones are usually visited by members of male-dominated villages. Notably, the ladies entrepreneurs (village operators) get pleasure from wider discretion in expending their income from their telephone companies than with their family revenue.

What’s the position of presidency within the improvement of e-commerce in growing international locations?[edit]

Whereas it’s usually agreed that the non-public sector ought to take the lead position within the improvement and use of e-commerce, the federal government performs an instrumental position in encouraging e-commerce development by way of concrete practicable measures reminiscent of:

1. Creating a good coverage atmosphere for e-commerce; and

2. Turning into a modern person of e-commerce and its purposes in its operations, and a supplier to residents of e-government companies, to encourage its mass use.

What’s a good coverage atmosphere for e-commerce?

Among the many public coverage points in digital commerce that governments ought to take heed of are:

  • “bridging the digital divide” or selling entry to cheap and quick access to data networks;
  • authorized recognition of e-commerce transactions;
  • client safety from fraud;
  • safety of customers’ proper to privateness;
  • authorized safety in opposition to cracking (or unauthorized entry to laptop methods); and
  • safety of mental property.

Measures to handle these points have to be included in any nation’s coverage and authorized framework for e-commerce. It is crucial that authorities undertake insurance policies, legal guidelines and incentives that concentrate on selling belief and confidence amongst e-commerce contributors and growing a nationwide framework that’s suitable with worldwide norms on e-commerce (masking as an example, contract enforcement, client safety, legal responsibility project, privateness safety, mental property rights, cross-border commerce, and enchancment of supply infrastructure, amongst others59).

How can authorities use e-commerce60?

Authorities can use e-commerce within the following methods:

  • E-procurement. Authorities companies ought to have the ability to commerce electronically with all suppliers utilizing open standards-through ‘company enablement’ packages, ‘provider enablement’ packages, and e-procurement data methods.
  • Customs clearance. With the computerization of customs processes and operations (i.e., digital submission, processing and digital cost; and automatic methods for knowledge entry to combine customs tables, codes and pre-assessment), one can count on extra predictable and extra exact data on clearing time and supply shipments, and elevated reliable revenues.
  • Tax administration. This features a system for digital processing and transmission of tax return data, on-line issuances of tax clearances, permits, and licenses, and an digital course of registration of companies and new taxpayers, amongst others.

As a rule, the e-commerce initiatives of presidency are a barometer indicating whether or not or not the infrastructure helps e-commerce use by non-public corporations. Which means if authorities is unable to have interaction in e-procurement, safe information on-line, or have customs charges remitted electronically, then the non-public sector will even have difficulties in e-commerce uptake. Just about, the advantages from e-commerce accrue to the federal government, because the experiences of some international locations replicate.61

Are current authorized methods adequate to guard these engaged in e-commerce?

Sadly, the prevailing authorized methods in most growing international locations are usually not adequate to guard these engaged in e-commerce. As an example, with respect to contracts, current legal guidelines had been conceived at a time when the phrase “writing,” “doc” and “signature” referred to issues in paper type. However, in at present’s digital enterprise transactions paper isn’t used for record-keeping or getting into into contracts.

One other essential and customary authorized situation confronted by many growing international locations is uncertainty concerning whether or not the courts will settle for digital contracts or paperwork and/or digital signatures as proof. One view is that the difficulty of admissibility of electronically generated proof is not going to be resolved until a legislation particularly referring to it’s handed. This hole in current authorized methods has induced the emergence of a minimum of two divergent views: one bordering on the conservative interpretation of the phrase “doc” as to exclude non-paper-based ones; and the opposite involving a liberal building, which permits digital counterparts of paperwork.

Within the ASEAN area, solely three countries-Singapore (Singapore Digital Transactions Act), Malaysia (Cyberlaws), and the Philippines (Philippine E-commerce Act)-have a authorized framework for e-commerce. These frameworks present for the authorized recognition of digital paperwork and signatures and penalize widespread crimes and offenses dedicated in our on-line world.

What different related coverage points needs to be addressed?

Different coverage points concern fundamental stipulations of infrastructure for profitable e-commerce, as follows:

1. Telecoms pricing and efficiency

One of many goals of telecommunications coverage and laws needs to be to make sure that the general public has entry to fundamental telecommunications companies at an inexpensive price. The purpose ought to finally be common accessor widespread entry to dependable data and communication companies at an inexpensive price and its availability at an inexpensive distance.

To boost the standard of telecommunications companies, insurance policies ought to encourage:

  • open entry, which refers back to the absence of non-competitive practices by community suppliers;
  • open structure, which pertains to the design of a system that facilitates interconnection amongst completely different methods and companies at the moment and as they develop over time; and
  • versatile entry, which pertains to interconnected and interoperable networks of telecommunications, broadcasting, and digital publishing, the place the format will likely be digital and the bandwidth will likely be adjusted based on the calls for of the person and the character of communications.62

2. High quality and velocity of distribution logistics (i.e., roads and bridges)

Roads and bridges, particularly in growing international locations, nonetheless type a part of the e-commerce infrastructure. Only a few items are delivered over the data infrastructure or the Web (the exceptions are music and software program). Many of the items bought over the Web are nonetheless delivered the traditional method (i.e., bodily supply). Therefore, poor roads and bridges, inefficient transport methods, coupled with the excessive price of worldwide parcel companies and bureaucratic customs clearance processes, are main obstacles within the uptake of e-commerce in growing international locations.63 Authorities ought to subsequently create a coverage atmosphere that may:

  • encourage investments within the nationwide bodily and transport infrastructure; and
  • present for digital customs clearance processing to streamline the forms and permit for extra clear, predictable and environment friendly customs operations.

Each of those will contribute to the discount of distribution and logistics prices.

How can authorities intervene within the promotion and improvement of e-commerce amongst SMEs?

The next are the extra related areas for presidency intervention with respect to SME uptake of e-commerce:64

E-SME Growth. The market finally drives e-commerce improvement, however it’s the non-public sector that fuels it. Authorities can present incentives to encourage widespread e-commerce use by SMEs. An “e-SME improvement program” by which numerous sectors can present technical help to SMEs to advertise e-commerce uptake, may also be developed. Banks, monetary lending and coaching establishments, and firms needs to be inspired to develop “SME desks” that may deal with the particular wants of SMEs. Specifically, steps needs to be taken to:

  • present incentives to people to develop into entrepreneurs by decreasing borrowing charges;
  • present incentives to SMEs that intend to make use of e-commerce of their enterprise operations;
  • broaden credit score extension services to SMEs to ensure that them to make use of ICT and e-commerce; and
  • supply reductions on enterprise resolution software program packages and software program licenses.

Furthermore, large companies and firms needs to be inspired to switch know-how to SMEs by providing them free coaching in ICT and e-commerce.

Consciousness Marketing campaign. Proof means that SMEs have inadequate data of data know-how and e-commerce. Many SMEs have recognized their lack of awareness of know-how as one of many foremost obstacles to utilizing e-commerce. Authorities and personal sector partnerships can have interaction in a marketing campaign to disseminate data to SMEs about e-commerce insurance policies, finest practices, success tales, and alternatives and obstacles referring to using ICTs and e-commerce. These consciousness campaigns might embrace free coaching programs and workshops on e-commerce, safety and privateness, awards packages, and knowledge facilities to help SMEs. Finally, this data marketing campaign ought to come within the type of an general e-commerce improvement technique for the financial system, specializing in its numerous progressive purposes for SMEs.

E-Authorities. Authorities needs to be the lead-user of e-commerce if numerous enterprise and private-sector associated actions are to be prompted to maneuver on-line. In impact, authorities turns into a constructive affect. E-government can take the type of numerous on-line transactions reminiscent of firm registration, taxation, purposes for quite a lot of employee- and business-related necessities, and the like.

Community Infrastructure and Localization of Content material. A developed nationwide data infrastructure is a obligatory, although not a adequate, situation for e-commerce uptake of SMEs. With out dependable and cheap telecommunications and different data companies, SMEs will be unable to go surfing. An essential technique on this regard is the development of “telecenters” or digital neighborhood facilities that may function a community-shared entry and connectivity platform particularly within the rural areas (e.g., an digital agri-information heart which gives market data to farmers in rural areas). These telecenters may also be a venue for capability constructing, abilities enhancement, coaching, communications and content material improvement.65 Authorities may undertake agglomerative approaches to Web use to cut back prices (e.g., export aggregators, reminiscent of B2B or B2C portals/exchanges for SMEs, which is able to facilitate buying and selling with fellow SMEs and with different firms within the worldwide market).

Strengthening Client Safety. Among the many extra widespread trust-related points that SMEs be aware of in contemplating whether or not to have interaction in e-commerce are: the place and the way cost takes place (whether or not actual or digital); when settlement takes place (earlier than, throughout or after the transaction); who settles; whether or not the transaction is B2B or B2C; and whether or not settlement might be traced. Usually, nevertheless, amongst e-commerce customers in growing international locations, together with SMEs, there may be very low willingness to offer delicate monetary data over the Web.66 However, customers have reservations about transacting with SMEs by way of the Web as a result of lack of a transparent coverage on returns and use of information. To deal with this concern, authorities can encourage firms/ SMEs to make their privateness coverage specific of their Web pages.

A extra complete measure that authorities can undertake to make sure safety in e-commerce transactions is the institution of a Certification Authority, which verifies vendor and purchaser identities, examines transactions and safety procedures, and points digital certificates to those that are capable of meet the set safety requirements. instance of this authorities effort is Singapore’s Certification Authority, Netrust. This suggestion does to not low cost the significance of private-driven safety options reminiscent of Web pages like Hypermart, which host and construct storefronts for SMEs whereas offering them a typical system for safe funds.68

Field. 15. Information Safety and Transaction Safety

Transaction safety pertains to 3 essential parts and associated points, particularly:

  • Transaction Privateness, which signifies that transactions have to be held non-public and intact, with unauthorized customers unable to grasp the message content material;
  • Transaction Confidentiality, implying that traces of transactions have to be dislodged from the general public community and that completely no middleman is permitted to carry copies of the transaction until licensed to take action; and
  • Transaction Integrity, which pertains to the significance of defending transactions from illegal interference-i.e., transactions have to be saved unaltered and unmodified. In an open community just like the Web, it appears troublesome to make sure these. There are, nevertheless, technological options that search to handle these safety considerations. These options often come within the type of authorization schemes, i.e., packages that make it possible for solely licensed customers can acquire entry to data sources reminiscent of person accounts, information, and databases. Typical examples of authorization schemes are: password safety, encrypted sensible playing cards, biometrics (e.g., fingerprinting, iris-scanning), and firewalls.67 A firewall is a system of cryptographic strategies supported by perimeter guards to make sure the secure arrival and storage of data and its safety from inner and exterior threats. The most typical knowledge and transaction and knowledge safety scheme is encryption, which entails a set of secret codes that defends delicate data crossing over on-line public channels. It makes data indecipherable besides to these with a decryption/decoding key.

Authorities may present pointers for SMEs within the improvement of a system of collaborative scores, which these entrepreneurs can show on their Web pages not solely to tell but additionally to guarantee their customers of safety. As an example, in digital exchanges, clients ought to have the ability to price suppliers when it comes to high quality of services or products and velocity of supply, amongst others. To attenuate fraud, sure safeguards needs to be constructed into the ranking system like imposing the requirement of presenting proof of buy earlier than one’s ranking can rely, with scores of normal clients having extra weight. Traits in scores and feedback needs to be made available to all customers. SMEs also needs to be inspired by way of applicable authorities incentive schemes to take part in internationally accredited Net-based on-line ranking schemes.69

Authorities may design and set up a authorized and judiciary framework that gives for minimal requirements of and necessities for transparency, impartiality and timeliness. Whereas in lots of growing international locations this can be a really bold purpose, within the medium time period SMEs could use self-regulated codes of conduct masking, for instance, return coverage, knowledge safety, and acceptable types of content material, which are relevant inside associations, cooperatives or their respective teams of friends and e-entrepreneurs.70 You will need to haven’t solely a ranking system but additionally an enforcement regime that individuals belief.

Human Assets Growth. The federal government can provoke pilot initiatives and packages for capability-building, coaching and e-commerce assist companies, reminiscent of Net design. In Kenya, as an example, the youth from Nairobi’s slums are being educated in Net design abilities.

Basically, authorities initiatives needs to be in keeping with present efforts within the foregoing areas of concern. Coordination with improvement cooperation companies is essential to keep away from any duplication of initiatives and efforts.

Concerning the Creator[edit]

Zorayda Ruth B. Andam is an incoming fifth 12 months (senior) legislation scholar of the College of the Philippines. She has a bachelor’s diploma in Enterprise Economics, additionally from the College of the Philippines. She is co-author of the e-primer: An Introduction to Digital Commerce (2000) and SMEs and e-Commerce in Three Philippine Cities (April 2003). Ms. Andam was a part of the USAID crew that offered technical help to the Philippine Authorities within the improvement and passage of the nation’s e-Commerce Regulation.

For Additional Studying[edit]

Primers and Experiences

Enterprise Software program Alliance. 2001. E-commerce and Creating Markets: Expertise, Commerce and Alternative.

Coward, Chris. August 2002. Obstacles to Creating an Offshore IT-Enabled Providers Trade in Asia: The View from the US. A report ready for the Middle for Web Research, College of Washington.

E-commerce/Web: B2B:2B or Not 2B? Model 1.1, Goldman Sachs Funding Analysis (November 1999 and September 14, 1999 points)

Japan Exterior Commerce Group. February 2002. Digital Commerce in APEC Economies: Specializing in Electrical/Digital Components Procurements.

Lallana, Emmanuel C, Patricia J. Pascual, Zorayda Ruth B. Andam. April 2002. SMEs and eCommerce in Three Philippine Cities. A research/report ready for the Asia Basis by Digital Philippines.

________________. January 2002. SMEs and e-commerce. A research/report ready for The Asia Basis, Fort Asia.

Lallana, Emmanuel, Rudy S. Quimbo and Zorayda Ruth B. Andam. 2000. E-Primer: An Introduction to E-commerce. DAI-AGILE, a USAID-funded mission.

Mann, Catherine with Sue E. Eckert and Sarah Cleeland Knight. 2000. International Digital Commerce: A Coverage Primer. Washington DC: Institute for Worldwide Economics.


Bonnett, Kendra. 2000. An IBM Information to Doing Enterprise on the Web. U.S.A.: McGraw-Hill.

Cronin, Mary J. 2000. Unchained Worth: The New Logic of Digital Enterprise. U.S.A.: Harvard Enterprise College Press.

Cronin, Mary J., ed. 1998. Banking and Finance on the Web. U.S.A.: John Wiley & Sons.

Evans, Philip and Thomas S. Wurster. 2000. Blown to Bits: How the New Economics of Info Transforms Technique. U.S.A.: Harvard Enterprise College Press.

Kalakota, Ravi and Andrew B. Whinston. 1997. Digital Commerce: A Supervisor’s Information. Addison Wesley Longman, Inc.

Kanter, Rosabeth Moss. 2001. e-Volve: Succeeding within the Digital Tradition of Tomorrow. U.S.A.: Harvard Enterprise College Press.

Lamont, Douglas. 2001. Conquering the Wi-fi World: The Age of m-Commerce. United Kingdom: Capstone Publishing Inc.

Plant, Robert. 2000. eCommerce Formulation of Technique. U.S.A.: Prentice Corridor Inc.

Rosen, Anita. 2000. The E-commerce Query and Reply Ebook: A Survival Information for Enterprise Managers. American Administration Affiliation.

Smith, Dayle. 2001. The E-business Ebook: A Step-by-Step Information to E-commerce and Past. Princeton: Bloomberg Press.

Tapscott, Don, David Ticoll and Alex Lowy. 2000. Digital Capital: Harnessing the Energy of Enterprise Webs. Nice Britain: Nicholas Brealey Publishing.

Younger, Patrick and Thomas Theys. 1999. Capital Market Revolution: The Way forward for Marlets in an On-line World. Nice Britain: Pearson Training Restricted.

Publications by Catherine Mann

Mann, Catherine. Forthcoming. “Steadiness and Overlap within the International Digital Market: The UCITA Instance.” Washington College Journal of Regulation & Coverage.

________________. 2002. “Digital Commerce, Networked Readiness, and Commerce Competitiveness.” In Geoffrey Kirkman et al. eds. International IT Readiness Report. Harvard College and World Financial Discussion board.

________________. 2002. “Digital Commerce, the WTO, and Creating Nations.” In Hoekman, Aaditya Mattoo, and Philip English, eds. Growth, Commerce, and the WTO: A Handbook. Washington DC: The World Financial institution.

________________. October 2000. “Transatlantic Points in E-commerce.” In Isabella Falautano and Paolo Guerrieri, eds. “Past Seattle: A New Strategic Method within the WTO 2000,” IAI Quaderni No. 11, Rome. An English model is on the market as IIE Working Paper no. 007, October 2000.

________________. August 2000. “International Digital Commerce: Problem and Alternative for Authorities Coverage.” In Firm Secretary. Hong Kong Institute of Firm Secretaries.

________________. July 17, 2000. “International Digital Commerce: Macroeconomic Advantages and Coverage Decisions.” Invited Op-Ed, Nikkei Journal (Tokyo).

________________. 2000. “Digital Commerce in Creating Nations: Points for Home Coverage and WTO Negotiations.” In Robert Stern, ed. Providers

within the Worldwide Financial system: Measurement, Modeling, Sectoral and Nation Research, and Points within the World Providers Negotiations. College of Michigan Press.

________________. October 21, 1999. “Liberalizing Providers: Key to Sooner International Development and the Sustainability of the US Commerce Deficit.” Testimony earlier than the Subcommittee on Worldwide Commerce of the Senate Finance Committee.

________________ with Sarah Cleeland Knight. July 2000. “Digital Commerce within the World Commerce Group.” In Jeffrey Schott, ed. The WTO After Seattle. Institute for Worldwide Economics.


From The McKinsey Quarterly 2000 (The New World of Private Monetary Providers). No. 3:

– “Will the Banks Management On-line Banking?” by Sandra Boss, Devin McGranahan, and Asheet Mehta, p. 70

– “The Future for Bricks and Mortar” by Matthias M. Bekier, Dorlisa Ok. Flur, and Seelan J. Singham, p. 78

– “Banking on the Machine” by David Maude, Raghunath R, Anupan Sahay, and Peter Sands, p. 86

– “How E-tailing Can Rise from the Ashes” by Joanna Barsh, Blair Crawford, and Chris Grosso, p. 98

– “Constructing Retail Manufacturers” by Terilyn A. Henderson and Elizabeth A. Mihas, p. 110

– “M-Commerce: An Operator’s Handbook” by Nick Barnett, Stephen Hodges, and Michael J. Wilshire, p. 162

– “The Actual Enterprise of B2B” by Glenn Ramsdell, p. 174

From The McKinsey Quarterly 2000 (What Mergers Miss). No. 4:

– “Advertising and marketing Classes from E-failures” by Vittoria Varianini and Diana Vaturi, p. 86

– “From Merchandise to Ecosystems: Retail 2010,” p. 108

From The McKinsey Quarterly 2000 (e-performance). No. 1:

– “E-performance: The Path to Rational Exuberance” by Vikas Agrawal, Luis D. Arjona and Ron Lemmens, p. 30

– “B2Basics” by Ryan Kerrigan, Eric V. Roegner, Dennis D. Swinford and Craig C. Zawada, p. 44

– “Past the Enterprise Unit” by Russell Eisenstat, Nathaniel Footye, Jay Galbraith, and Danny Miller, p. 54


Digital Financial system for Communities and SMEs Growth, 19–21 June 2002, Siam Intercontinental Resort, Bangkok, Thailand by APEC Digital Commerce Coaching Middle (Workshop on Digital Commerce Coverage and Regional Cooperation).


APEC Process Drive on Digital Commerce homepage.

Enterprise Software program Alliance homepage.

E-ASEAN Process Drive homepage.

Digital Commerce World Journal homepage.

Worldwide Commerce Centre UNCTAD/WTO homepage.

United Nations Convention on Commerce and Growth homepage.

United Nations Worldwide Computing Centre homepage.

World Customs Group homepage.

Varian, Hal R. Markets for Info Items (College of California, Berkeley: April 1998, revised October 16, 1998). Accessible from

1 Anita Rosen, The E-commerce Query and Reply Ebook (USA: American Administration Affiliation, 2000), 5.

2 MK, Euro Data Correspondence Centre (Belgrade, Serbia), “E-commerce-Issue of Financial Development;” obtainable from; Web; accessed 25 September 2002.

Three Thomas L. Mesenbourg, Measuring Digital Enterprise: Definitions, Underlying Ideas, and Measurement Plans.

Four Definition tailored and expanded from Emmanuel Lallana, Rudy Quimbo, Zorayda Ruth Andam, ePrimer: An Introduction to eCommerce (Philippines: DAI-AGILE, 2000), 2.

5 Ibid.

6 Lallana, Quimbo, Andam, 4. Cf. Ravi Kalakota and Andrew B. Whinston, Digital Commerce: A Supervisor’s Information (USA: Addison Wesley Longman, Inc., 1997), 19-20.

7 Lallana, Quimbo, Andam, 4.

Eight Breakdown of the Worldwide Information Corp.

9 “E-commerce/Web: B2B: 2B or Not 2B?” (Goldman Sachs Funding Analysis, November 1999), v. 1.1, 16,68-71.

10 Ibid.

11 Kalakota and Whinston, 18-19.

12 Lallana, Quimbo, Andam, 4.

13 To be mentioned within the succeeding sections of this primer.

14 Kalakota and Whinston, 20-21.

15 TA Mission, “E-commerce;” obtainable from; Web; accessed 26 September 2002.

16; obtainable from; Web; accessed 26 September 2002.

17,; obtainable from

18 Cf. Kalakota and Whinston, 7-11.

19 Cf. Enterprise Software program Alliance, eCommerce and Creating Markets, 17-18.

20 For a extra intensive dialogue on convergence, confer with Edwin S. Soriano, Nets, Webs, and The Info Infrastructure.

21 Lallana, Quimbo, Andam, 13.

22 Tailored from the inputs and feedback on this primer of Mr. Chris Coward.

23 Trade Canada, Canada’s Enterprise and Client Website; obtainable from http://; accessed 26 September 2002..

24 Ibid.

25 Lallana, Quimbo and Andam, 2.

26 Michael Chait, “Is the Dot Com Bust Coming to an Finish?” (July 8, 2002); obtainable from; accessed 26 September 2002.

27 Reshma Kapadia, “What induced the dot-com bust?”; obtainable from,1113,2-13_1142765,00.html; accessed 26 September 2002.

28 Reid Goldscborough, “Viewpoint-Private Computing: Overlook The Dot-Com Bust, There’s Nonetheless Cash To Be Made;” obtainable from; accessed September 26, 2002.


30 Ibid.

31 Lynda M. Applegate, excerpts type the E-business Handbook (The St. Lucie Press, 2002); obtainable from; accessed 26 September 2002.

32 Community economies of scale are attained when an mixture of corporations or organizations share a typical infrastructure, capabilities and consumer base for quicker, higher and extra cost-efficient manufacturing and distribution of services.

33 Community economies of scope enable corporations and/or organizations inside the similar community/ digital neighborhood to share the infrastructure for the manufacturing and distribution of recent services and for creating and/or getting into new markets or launching new companies extra successfully and effectively than rivals.

34 Built-in provide chains allow distributors to hyperlink their suppliers with their enterprise purchasers/clients.

35 Built-in purchase chains allow distributors to hyperlink producers to customers.

36 NetValue Analysis

37 Suganthi, Balachandher and Balachandran, “Web Banking Patronage: An Empirical Investigation of Malaysia;” obtainable from; accessed 26 September 2002.

38 McKinsey survey.

39 This part is finest learn in relation to the dialogue on B2C.

40 To be included in Retail Ahead’s High e-retailers, the corporate ought to have generated a minimum of 50% of its gross sales from direct-to-consumer (DTC) retail.

41 Cf.

Determine 8.
Firm On-line Revenues (in billions of {dollars}) 3.12
Workplace Depot 1.60
Staples 0.95
Gateway, Inc. 0.76
Costco Wholesale 0.45 0.41 0.40 0.35
Spiegel Group 0.33
J.C. Penny 0.32

42 CAUCE (Coalition Towards Unsolicited Business E-mail); obtainable from Accessed 26 September 2002.

43 Andrea Goldstein and David O’Connor, E-commerce for Growth: Prospects and Coverage Points, (OECD Growth Centre, September 2000); obtainable from; accessed 26 September 2002.

44 Ibid.

45 Noah Elkin, “Creating Nations Assembly e-business Problem,” February 5, 2003.

46 In response to 2003 figures of AMI-Companions, a analysis group on small enterprise market.

47 Most artisans are ladies residing in very distant villages. Their being remoted could also be why their crafts have survived.

48 Goldstein and O’Conner.

49 Ibid

50 Ibid.

51 ITU, 1999.

52 Goldstein and O’Conner.

53 Ibid.

54 Ibid.

55 Ibid.

56 Emmanuel Lallana, Patricia J. Pascual, and Zorayda Ruth Andam, SMEs and E-commerce: The Philippine Case; Cf. SMEs and E-commerce: The Case of Indonesia, ready for The Asia Basis by Fort Asia

57 Tailored from the inputs and feedback on this primer by Dr. Catherine Mann.

58 Nancy Hafkin and Nancy Taggart, “Gender, Info Expertise, and Creating Nations: An Analytical Research,” June 2001.

59 Ibid.

60 For an in depth dialogue of e-government initiatives, please confer with the primer on “EGovernment” by Patricia J. Pascual.

61 Tailored from the inputs and feedback on this primer by Dr. Catherine Mann. For extra data, confer with “Benchmarking e-Authorities: A International Perspective” by UN-DPEPA and ASPA and “E-Authorities within the Philippines: Benchmarking Towards International Finest Practices” by Emmanual C. Lallana, Patricia J. Pascual and Edwin S. Soriano.

62 Division of Commerce and Communications. “An Infocomms Coverage for the Info Financial system: A Consultative Paper,” December 2000.

63 Lallana, Quimbo and Andam, 14.

64 Lallana, Pascual and Andam; Cf. SMEs and E-commerce: The Case of Indonesia.

65 Ibid.

66 Goldstein and O’Conner.

67 Firewalls act as a filter between a company community and the Web, protecting the company community safe from intruders however permitting authenticated company customers uninhibited entry to the Web (Supply: Kalakota and Whinston).

68 Ibid., Cf. ITC, 2000.

69 Ibid.

70 Ibid.


The writer want to thank her peer reviewers, Dr. Catherine Mann (Senior Fellow of the Institute for Worldwide Economics), Mr. Chris Coward (Director of the Middle for Web Research) and Mr. Carter Eltzroth (Senior Vice President, International Public Coverage, MIH Group) for his or her useful inputs to this primer.

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