Castles of England/Print Model – Wikibooks, open books for an open world

Castles of England/Print Version - Wikibooks, open books for an open world


A standard picture of a fort below siege, however was it actually like this?

The standard medieval fort has lengthy impressed the creativeness, conjuring up photos of jousts, banquets and Arthurian chivalry. Even standing amidst thousand year-old ruins it’s straightforward to recall to mind the sounds and smells of battles lengthy gone, to nearly hear the clatter of hooves on the cobbles and to scent the concern rising from the dungeon pits. However is our creativeness primarily based on actuality? Why had been castles constructed within the first place? How had been they designed and constructed? Who lived in them? This e book will attempt to reply these questions for you…

Historic Context

Mousa Broch, an early stone tower constructed maybe 1,000 years earlier than the primary castles

Fortifications of 1 kind or one other have been in use in England since at the very least the Iron Age (6th century BC) with stays of ditches, ramparts and palisades nonetheless in proof. Scotland is scattered with brochs, stone towers constructed for defence, raised at the very least 1,000 years earlier than the primary medieval castles. Historians don’t contemplate these constructions to be castles – on this e book the definition we use of a fort is that it was each the house of its proprietor, and a fortification designed to guard the proprietor’s lands and holdings.

The place did the necessity for giant, everlasting, fortified properties come from? The reply to that lies within the feudal system.

The Feudal System

It was the event of the feudal system that led on to the event of what we recognise in the present day as a fort. Earlier than in regards to the 9th century, “kingdoms” had been usually small and could possibly be simply ruled by one ruler. It was Charlemagne, the king of the Franks, who modified this. His empire, which stretched throughout a lot of central Europe within the 8th – 9th century BC, was too giant for him to rule successfully. So he started the observe of breaking it down into small administrative items, every ruled by a lord or nobleman. In return for being allotted land, every lord was required to supply troopers to Charlemagne in time of conflict.

Charlemagne’s successor, Louis the Pious, king of Aquitaine, had three heirs (Lothair, Pepin and Louis the German) who cut up the empire between them. These new kings had been confronted with the specter of conflict with one another, enemies outdoors the previous empire and from unrest inside their very own territories. At across the similar time the Franks invented the stirrup, permitting armoured males to combat successfully from horseback. This result in the adjustments in social order we might recognise as typical of the medieval interval with knights on horseback serving a lord.

The feudal system developed to assist this navy hierarchy, making a social hierarchy with the king on the prime, then the nobles, then the knights and at last the serfs or peasants. The king owned all of the land, however “lent” it to these beneath him, who lent it to these beneath them within the system. In return a portion of the merchandise of the land had been paid to these larger within the system. The system was in impact offering an earnings to the soldiers and nobles larger within the hierarchy to pay them for safeguarding these decrease within the hierarchy.

The benefits of this technique to the king are clear. Not solely would he have forces accessible when required, and a continuing earnings with out having to manage all the lands himself, he had additionally ensured no noble might individually afford a big sufficient military to threaten his rule. He has additionally ensured that each space of his lands could be always defended within the occasion of invasion.

To make this technique work, every noble wanted a house inside their lands. As these had been harmful instances, and the noble couldn’t afford to have a big standing military, this residence wanted to have robust defences that could possibly be manned by a comparatively small variety of troopers. And, thus, the fort was born.

Origins of Castles

Leeds Fortress, initially of Norman design it was modified extensively all through its life

The phrase Fortress itself entered the English language within the 11th century AD, being tailored from the Norman phrase castel, broadly that means “fort”. The phrase had earlier entered Previous English in a unique type as ceaster, and may be discovered within the title of many English city because the suffices “caster” and “chester”.

The precise date when the primary castles had been constructed is unknown. Nevertheless, it’s probably that the primary buildings with the primary options related to castles had been constructed between 850 and 900 AD.

The earliest castles had been constructed by native nobles to defend their residence or corridor and its related buildings. The development would have taken the type of a ditch dug across the corridor, with the earth banked up contained in the ditch to type a steep slope. Sooner or later, fences or a palisade of sharpened timber might have been constructed on prime of the financial institution. Additional developments may need included a lookout tower and a separate fence to guard the corridor independently from the opposite, much less vital, buildings. On this approach the fundamental form of the fort may be discerned – a gate tower, a maintain surrounded by an inside wall, and an outer wall enclosing all the protected buildings.

In the course of the 9th century, the Danes started to reach in England and assemble their very own settlements. To withstand additional encroachment on his lands, Alfred the Nice fortified the cities that lay on the border with the Danes’ settlements, utilizing ditches and ramparts. In the meantime, Viking invaders of what was to turn out to be France got land round Rouen. This group grew quickly in power increasing into the world later generally known as Normandy.

When Edward the Confessor’s cousin, William, inherited Normandy in 1035 the hyperlinks between Normandy and England had been cemented. On Edward’s demise, Harold Goodwinson (the strongest of the nobles of England) took the throne sparking William to invade England in 1066. With the invasion got here the start of the development of what we recognise in the present day as a real English fort…

Historical past of the Interval

A mannequin of Bedford fort. The distinctive motte with tower may be seen on the backside left.

The Norman interval started on 14 October 1066 when the invading forces of William, Duke of Normandy (later generally known as William the Conqueror) defeated the military of King Harold Godwinson on the Battle of Hastings. Harold’s military had been weakened whereas successful the Battle of Stamford Bridge on 25 September 1066 towards the military of King Harald III of Norway. After this preliminary victory, the southern a part of England surrendered rapidly to William’s rule. It took six extra years of battle to subdue the north.

In 1067 rebels in Kent attacked Dover Fortress whereas Eadric the Wild, again my some Welsh lords, raised forces in western Mercia main them towards the Norman military primarily based in Hereford. In 1068 rebels in Exeter had been besieged by William who suffered critical losses earlier than finally negotiating the give up of the city. This was adopted by one other revolt in western Mercia once more backed by the Welsh and a separate rebellion in Northumbria. It was throughout this era, as William travelled by means of England, that many castles had been constructed as a part of the conflict towards the rebels.

In 1069 the Norman Earl of Northumbria and his military had been attacked by rebels in Durham, all being slain. The rebels had been this time supported by forces from Scotland who besieged York Fortress and killed its castellan. William introduced a military from the south and introduced the revolt to an finish throughout which the inhabitants of York was massacred. Following his victory William constructed a second fort at York.

Later in 1069 a Sweyn II of Denmark despatched a fleet to England, the Danes becoming a member of forces with a brand new Northumbrian rise up. The insurgent forces seized each York castles however a probe into Lincolnshire was defeated by the Norman garrison there. On the similar time different insurgent forces from Cheshire and Shropshire attacked the fort at Shrewsbury whereas rebels in Dorset and Somerset besieged Montacute Fortress.

Additional unrest continued for practically 20 years; it wasn’t till 1088 that England was at peace.

The Norman interval led to 1154 with the demise of King Stephen at Dover Fortress. On the time of the Norman conquest, two fundamental fort varieties had developed: the motte and bailey fort, and the enclosure fort.

Motte and Bailey Castles

Colchester Fortress in Essex. It was constructed from bricks recycled from Roman fortifications

The commonest kind of Norman fort is the motte and bailey. It’s constructed by elevating a small hill, with a tower on prime which is then surrounded by a fence or wall. This kind of fort is comparatively fast and simple to construct. The tower and fence may be constructed of wooden but nonetheless provide a powerful defence. The motte needs to be fastidiously constructed to forestall its collapse. Often layers of earth, stone and gravel had been used to strengthen the floor.

Some motte and bailey castles had been constructed with stone towers and partitions. A few of these towers, typically known as Nice Towers, have survived. Probably the most well-known are in all probability the White Tower, typically generally known as the Tower of London and Colchester Fortress in England’s oldest recorded city. In each circumstances these had been constructed from the reused stays of Roman fortifications.

Enclosure Castles

An enclosure fort is a improvement of the motte and bailey design and there may be generally not a transparent differentiation between the 2. Broadly the wall of an enclosure fort varieties a part of the first fortification and will embrace towers, gatehouses or a barbican.

Castles of the Interval

Kenilworth Fortress

Historical past of the Fortress

Kenilworth Fortress is of Norman origin and was in-built about 1120. The good tower was constructed later throughout the reign of Henry I by the Chief Justice of England, Geoffrey de Clinton (who had additionally been Lord Chamberlain and Treasurer to Henry I). The fort handed to Henry II in 1173. Henry ordered work to enhance the power of the fort and by about 1240 the fort was in its present type. It had been surrounded on three sides by a big synthetic lake, generally known as the Mere, designed to maintain siege engines out of vary. It additionally created a formidable barrier for any assault.

After finishing the works, the fort was granted to Simon de Montfort, who was later a distinguished chief within the Second Barons’ Struggle. Kenilworth Fortress was used as his base and was used as a jail for Prince Edward, the inheritor of Henry III. Edward escaped and later lead forces towards de Montfort at Evesham, defeating them and killing de Montfort.

In 1266 the siege of Kenilworth Fortress started, the longest in English historical past. The besiegers, lead by Lord Edward, had been unable to breach the defenses and, after practically a 12 months, the dispute was settled by settlement. Henry III then handed the fort to his youngest son by means of him it was finally inherited by John of Gaunt. John of Gaunt and is grandson, Henry V, slowly transformed Kenilworth from a construction that was solely defensive to a extra comfy residence.

Kenilworth Fortress handed out of royal arms in 1563, changing into a possession of the Dudley household, earlier than returning after his demise. In the course of the English Civil Struggle the fort was captured by the Parliamentarians and later dismantled with the supplies bought. After the restoration, the fort was handed to the Earl of Clarendon, who retained possession till 1937. Finally the fort was given to English Heritage in 1984.

Design of the Fortress

Structure of Kenilworth Fortress by Charles Oman

Kenilworth Fortress started as a motte and bailey fort with wood partitions. It’s constructed on a rock knoll, surrounded by marsh land giving it a naturally robust place. Because the fort was developed, the first materials used within the building was sandstone, sourced from native quarries.

The Preserve (A on the diagram) is the strongest a part of the fort. The design spreads the big weight of the partitions throughout a big space, making them far much less more likely to collapse if undermined. The partitions are thick and had been unlikely to be weak to battering. The partitions are looped and in addition comprise various home windows, the bigger ones being added throughout the Tudor interval when defensive power was much less vital than consolation. The maintain was entered by means of a forebuilding which was later transformed to a gallery resulting in the gardens.

Adjoining the maintain are the kitchens and the Sturdy Tower. The kitchen was bodily separate because of the hearth danger and had lodging for the home servants. The Sturdy Tower contained the primary service services together with the pantry and buttery.

John of Gaunt’s Corridor (B on the diagram) was constructed within the 14th century.

Leicester’s Constructing (D on the diagram) is an Elizabethan three-story constructing containing residing lodging within the type of suites. Every contained ornamental fireplaces, a bed room and a public room with giant home windows.

Mortimer’s Tower (F on the diagram) was a gatehouse controlling the doorway to the fort’s outer courtroom. When constructed the Mere protected the tower, rising to the very base of the tower. The tower has arrow loops and grooves for a portcullis.

Lunn’s Tower (H on the diagram) is a part of King John’s wall. It contained no residing quarters or storage areas. The partitions are looped and canopy the north east nook of the defence.

The Water Tower (I on the diagram) was a part of the residing lodging and had little defensive worth because of its giant home windows.

Leicester’s Gatehouse (J on the diagram) is a gatehouse constructed to function the primary entrance to the fort. It was constructed by Dudley when the defensive qualities of the fort had been a lot much less vital. The doorway was made huge sufficient for wheeled carriages to make use of.

Corfe Fortress

Historical past of the Fortress

Corfe Fortress dominates the encompassing space

Though proof exists of an earlier construction, the surviving fort within the village of Corfe Fortress is of Norman building. The stone corridor and inside bailey wall had been constructed within the 11th century. Additional constructions had been erected by means of till about 1250 together with further towers, halls and partitions. Right now the fort was a royal treasure home. The fort was held by the royal household till the 16th century when it was disposed of by Elizabeth I to Sir Christopher Hatton.

In 1635 the fort handed into the Bankes household. The fort was besieged twice throughout the English Civil Struggle by the Parliamentarians. The primary siege final six weeks, and the second two months. It was ended when the Royalists had been betrayed. The Parliamentarians slighted the fort to forestall its use as a fortress.

The fort was returned to the Bankes household in 1660; nevertheless, they didn’t reoccupy the fort, as a result of the harm was extreme. Within the 1980s, Ralph Bankes bequeathed the fort to the Nationwide Belief, which continues to personal and keep it.

Design of the Fortress

Plan view of Corfe Fortress

Corfe Fortress is constructed on prime of a steep mound, commanding a spot within the south Purbeck hills, and is surrounded by a deep defensive ditch. The fort is positioned to defend the world from invaders touchdown to the south in Poole harbour and different anchorages. The primary line of defence was the Outer Gatehouse.

Historical past of the Interval

In 1120 Prince William, the one son of Henry I, was drowned when the ship carrying him residence sank. Following William’s demise there have been two potential heirs to the throne: Henry’s daughter, Matilda, and his nephew Stephen. On Henry’s demise, Stephen turned king. Some nobles would have most well-liked Matilda, sparking a 14 12 months civil conflict.

Matilda married Geoffrey, Depend of Anjou, who was also called “Plantagenet”. Whereas Geoffrey tried to achieve management of Normandy, Matilda battled with Stephen for management of England. After capturing Stephen on the Battle of Lincoln, she compelled him to permit the throne to go to her son, who would turn out to be Henry II – the primary of the Plantagenet kings. He was succeeded by his son, Richard the Lionheart who was succeeded by John.

Throughout this era of inside strife, the fort performed an vital function and the character of the combating result in the event of specialized siege gear.

Shell Retains

Fortress engineers throughout the Norman interval didn’t belief the motte to assist the big weight of a stone maintain. A typical answer was to switch the palisade with a stone wall then construct wood buildings backing onto the within of the wall. This building was lighter than a maintain and prevented the partitions from being undermined, that means they could possibly be thinner and lighter.

Nice Towers

Within the 12th century nice towers (also called a donjon or maintain) started to appear as a alternative for the motte because the robust level of the fort. The good tower had thick heavy partitions, generally as much as seven metres thick, and will resist the most recent siege equipment whereas additionally offering higher and extra spacious residing quarters for the fort proprietor. Older castles had been rebuilt with nice towers by both demolishing the motte or developing the tower on prime of the motte. The latter possibility was much less frequent because the motte might not often take the load of a fantastic tower with out danger of collapse. In lots of early fort designs the maintain was located at or close to the doorway to the fort to guard this weak level.

Castles of the Interval

Fortress Rising

The maintain of Fortress Rising

Historical past of the Fortress

The development of Fortress Rising started in 1138. The maintain is surrounded by an infinite earthworks that had been constructed up throughout the 12th century, probably in response to the 1173-1174 revolt led by Hugh Bigod in Norfolk.

Between 1330 and 1358 Isabella of France lived in Fortress Rising.

Design of the Fortress

Orford Fortress

Historical past of the Fortress

The development of Orford Fortress started in 1165 on the orders of Henry II and was accomplished in 1173. The design of the maintain, a polygonal tower, is exclusive being round in cross-section with three abutting rectangular towers. The fort tower is enclosed by a curtain wall with a gatehouse and flanking towers.

4 years after completion, Orford Fortress was garrisoned by the first Earl of Norfolk when he joined the rise up of Henry the Younger King. Within the 13th century Prince Louis of France occupied Orford Fortress following his invasion of England in 1216. The fort declined in significance throughout the later a part of the 13th century and was bought by Edward I.

Design of the Fortress

Plan of Orford Fortress maintain.

Richmond Fortress

The maintain of Richmond Fortress, it was a 12th century addition to the unique fort

Historical past of the Fortress

Alan the Pink of Brittany started building of Richmond Fortress within the Yorkshire Dales started in 1071. As soon as full it was used because the headquarters of the “Honour of Richmond”, a gaggle of estates within the surrounding space.

Design of the Fortress

Richmond Fortress is constructed from stone and initially had a towered curtain wall and gatehouse however no maintain. Partitions guarded solely two sides of the three sided hilltop as no wall was felt vital on the third aspect because of the steep cliff and river.

Historical past of the Interval

This era begins with the accession to the throne of Henry III, son of King John, in 1216. Some civil strife was in all probability inevitable as Henry was a 9 12 months previous boy and incapable of ruling with out help. A bunch of insurgent barons had invited Prince Louis of France to take the crown and he had led his forces in an invasion of England, laying siege to Windsor, Dover and Lincoln castles. Nevertheless, he started to lose assist when his forces had been unable to seize these highly effective castles and finally many barons started to defect to Henry. Louis was defeated by the regent, William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke, described as the best knight who ever lived. He fought in over 500 tournaments, by no means dropping, in addition to performing quite a few acts of bravery all through a protracted profession serving 5 English kings.

In 1227, Henry declared himself of age and ready to rule in his personal proper. However the barons had been a robust power within the nation. By way of castles, they outnumbered the king three to at least one, that they had more cash and extra navy forces. Struggle broke out and the barons, lead by Simon de Montfort, made fast positive aspects culminating within the seize of Henry and his son, Prince Edward. They escaped although and the conflict turned within the king’s favour with de Montfort being slain at Evesham. In 1272 Edward took the throne as Edward I. His reign was characterised by border wars towards Welsh and Scottish forces. It was whereas travelling to Scotland in 1307 to suppress one other rise up that he died. He was succeeded by Edward II who lead the English military into Scotland.

Edward II was not the navy chief that his father was – his military didn’t suppress the rise up and Scotland was left alone for seven years. When Edward returned in 1314 the Scots, lead by Robert the Bruce, the English military was soundly defeated. Bored with his weak point he was compelled from the throne by this Queen after which murdered at Berkeley Fortress.

Edward III was extra within the mould of his grandfather. He reestablished the authority of the crown earlier than build up England’s forces to turn out to be essentially the most highly effective in Europe. He smashed the Scots close to Berwick making use of longbows and paid troopers who had begun to switch the normal feudal knights.

Enclosure Castles

Quadrangular Castles

Nice Towers and Pele Towers

An excellent tower is the title given to the primary tower of a motte and bailey fort.

Fortified Manors

Castles of the Interval

Framlington Fortress

York Fortress

The primary York Fortress was constructed on the orders of William I in 1068 and was a motte and bailey fort. It was destroyed a 12 months later by a Viking military after which it was rebuilt with a big set of water defences. It remained a centre for royal energy within the north east till an explosion in 1684 broken the fort defences past financial restore.

Kenilworth Fortress

The unique Kenilworth Fortress was a fantastic tower constructed within the 1120s. It was expanded by King John throughout the 13th century with an in depth set of water defences. Enlargement continued all through the 14th century as John of Gaunt occupied the fort as his predominant seat of energy. At this stage the fort was redesigned within the perpendicular type. Within the closing phases of improvement throughout Tudor instances, further buildings had been added. Kenilworth was slighted in 1649 throughout the Civil Struggle leaving all however two buildings uninhabitable.

Historical past of the Interval

This era begins with the seizure of the throne from Richard II by Henry IV. Henry was to spend most of his reign combating to ascertain his maintain on the nation; his son, Henry V, gained the advantages inheriting a powerful sufficient place to permit him to invade France. He gained a well-known victory at Agincourt and was declared the inheritor to the throne of France solely to die shortly afterwards from dysentery.

Henry’s son, Henry VI, was just one 12 months previous when his father died and inherited the thrones of England and France. However Henry was not the warrior his illustrious father was and he was to lose the throne of France bringing the Hundred Years Struggle to an finish. While he reigned, an ongoing wrestle occurred between the Lancastrians and Yorkists. This conflict, the Struggle of the Roses, led to 1485 with the defeat of Richard III by Henry Tudor, the longer term Henry VII.

Fortress building was comparatively uncommon throughout the Tudor interval. The period of siege warfare was coming to an finish, and castles had not performed a serious function within the Struggle of the Roses. A typical fort of the interval is nearer to a fortified manor home than a real fort. Nevertheless, some true castles had been nonetheless constructed, this era seeing the rise of the brick constructed fort.

Brick Constructed Castles

Herstmonceux Fortress in East Sussex is a 15th century brick constructed fort

Brick making was launched into England within the 14th century, though the Romans had used bricks the artwork had died out. Rich castles homeowners, particularly these within the south-east of England, started to make use of bricks of their fort building. The bricks had been laid utilizing a method now generally known as English Bond. This system includes laying rows of bricks alternating between stretchers (the longer aspect is uncovered) and headers (the shorter aspect is uncovered). It’s the strongest bond for a one brick thick wall.

Castles of the Interval

Herstmonceux Fortress

Herstmonceux Fortress in East Sussex was constructed by Roger de Fiennes, Treasurer of the Family to Henry VI. Development started in about 1441, the fort being constructed from Flemish brick. Though it’s a superficially robust fort, with a big gatehouse and towers, the partitions had been too skinny to withstand a critical assault. It was primarily a non-public residence, set in giant Elizabethan gardens. The fort fell into disrepair and was renovated with some modifications within the 20th century.

Kirby Muxloe Fortress

Kirby Muxloe Fortress, a high quality instance of a brick constructed fort

Typical for the interval, Kirby Muxloe Fortress is extra of a fortified home than a real fort. Its giant glazed home windows and skinny partitions wouldn’t have been ready to withstand a decided assault for lengthy. Within the 1480s, when its building was begun by Lord Hastings, the nation was comparatively peaceable and protection was solely required towards small bands of roving marauders.

The fort is of brick building in a quadrangle format. The unique design included nook towers linked by curtain partitions with towers positioned in the midst of every size of wall. A moat surrounds the fort with a wood drawbridge giving entry to the gatehouse.

By the 14th century castles had been starting to fall out of favour. England was changing into more and more peaceable and castles had been costly to take care of. They had been additionally chilly and ugly locations to reside. Over time, castles started to fall into disuse, to get replaced by manor homes. Some castles, nevertheless, continued to be maintained, significantly these in strategically vital places just like the Scottish borders and ports.

The Civil Struggle

Corfe Fortress in Dorset. Within the foreground is the bailey wall, which was intentionally destroyed (“slighted”) following the Civil Struggle as a way to render the defences ineffective

The final battle wherein castles performed a serious function was the English Civil Struggle. This conflict, fought by means of the 1640s, noticed castles introduced again into use. As soon as the combating had ended, practically 60 castles had been partly destroyed so that they could not be used once more.

The Fortress as a Fashionable Residence

The east aspect of Windsor Fortress, now one of many many properties of the British Royal Household

Some castles that survived the Civil Struggle had been retained as household properties, maybe essentially the most spectacular of which (outdoors of the Royal castles), is Arundel in West Sussex.

On this chapter we have a look at what it was wish to reside in a fort for the completely different teams of people that usually lived in a single – from the Lord to the serfs.





Man-at-arms was a time period used to explain a soldier, nearly at all times knowledgeable warrior within the sense of being well-trained in using arms, who served as a totally armoured heavy cavalryman. It might confer with knights or noblemen and to members of their retinues or to mercenaries in firms below captains. Such males might serve for pay or by means of a feudal obligation. The phrases knight and man-at-arms are sometimes used interchangeably, however whereas all knights outfitted for conflict definitely had been men-at-arms, not all men-at-arms had been knights.

All through the Medieval interval and into the Renaissance the armour of the man-at-arms turned progressively more practical and costly. All through the 14th century, the armour worn by a man-at-arms would have been a composite of supplies. Over a quilted gambeson, mail armour would cowl the physique, limbs and head. More and more throughout the century, the mail would have been supplemented by plate armour on the physique and limbs. Within the 15th century, full plate armour was developed, which decreased the mail part to a couple factors of versatile reinforcement.

From the 14th to 16th century, the first weapon of the person at arms on horseback could be the lance. The lance of the 14th century was basically a easy spear, 12 ft. in size, often of ash. In response to the event of improved armour, nevertheless, heavier lances weighing as much as 18 kg. had been developed and a brand new methodology of utilizing them together with a lance relaxation (arrête) mounted to the breastplate developed. This mix of heavy lance and arrête enabled the mounted man-at-arms to take pleasure in a brand new effectiveness on the battlefields of the later 15th and 16th centuries. Not all men-at-arms within the 15th century carried the heavy lance. A lighter weapon known as a demi-lance developed and this gave its title to a brand new class of lighter-equipped man-at-arms, the demi-lancer, in the direction of the tip of the 15th century.

When combating on foot, men-at-arms initially tailored their extraordinary cavalry weapons. Within the 15th century, the elevated safety of plate armour led to the event of a specialist foot fight weapon, the pollaxe.

A fort would have had a garrison of various men-at-arms and they might have fulfilled the function of each cavalry and infantry as calls for required.


The Butler

In a medieval fort the butler was a mid ranked member of the employees accountable for the storage, safety and serving of alcohol. The title “butler” derives from the Center English phrase boteler which itself is derived from the Latin butticula that means somebody who takes care of butts, that’s, casks of wine.

The Castellan

The castellan was the governor of the fort, accountable for all facets of its home and navy organisation. A fort that was not the house of a noble could be completely run by a castellan.

The Steward

The steward supervised each the property and the family. In bigger castles there might have been two stewards – one who managed the property and the opposite (generally generally known as the majordomo) to handle the home family. For castles that didn’t have a castellan, the stewards would keep the fort throughout the proprietor’s absence.


Home Workers

Design Overview

Plan of Warwick Fortress, in-built 1068

The plan of Warwick Fortress exhibits nearly all of defensive options that will likely be lined on this chapter.

The Barbican

Line drawing of a fort barbican

The barbican was developed throughout the 13th century as a approach of bettering the defence of the gate – essentially the most weak a part of a fort. The speculation underlying the design was to power the attackers to enter an enclosed house, missed by effectively protected positions, as a way to strategy the gate. As soon as contained in the enclosed house (often a slender passage) the attackers could possibly be harried by arrows, boiling water or different weapons fired from elevated positions. The passage contained in the barbican was generally designed with a dog-leg near the gate. This prevented attackers having the ability to successfully use a battering ram.

The title derives from the Iranian phrase ‘parivraka’ that means ‘protecting’.

Concentric Partitions

The west aspect of the Tower of London. The concentric partitions may be simply seen

Concentric partitions had been developed at an analogous time to the barbican and had been primarily based on the identical idea. A second wall was constructed outdoors of the primary wall. The realm between the 2 partitions turned a killing zone for attackers who climbed the outer wall – as soon as they had been between the 2 partitions they could possibly be fired on from the inside wall, with no alternative to take cowl or transfer out of vary. The outer wall was decrease than the inside wall, permitting defenders on the inside wall to fireside at attackers outdoors the outer wall.

The price of a concentric wall was monumental they usually had been solely used on crucial castles. The primary examples being Dover and the Tower of London.

Ditches, Moats and Drawbridges

The primary defence of the fort was often the ditch and rampart. In early fort building, a ditch was typically dug across the website and the spoil piled up on the within, forming a rampart. In later designs, the ditch was retained though the rampart was changed with a stone wall.

Bodiam Fortress displaying the in depth moat defending the partitions

To make the ditch troublesome to cross, a moat was created by diverting an area water supply to fill the ditch to a depth better than a person might wade. The moat additionally made it harder to undermine the outer partitions (see beneath).

Partitions, Battlements and Preventing Platforms

Wall Development

A curtain wall (so known as as a result of it appears to hold like a curtain between the towers) was often between 30 and 45 toes excessive and between six and 20 toes thick; the wall changing into, generally, larger and thicker over time in response to improved offensive weapons and extra superior building methods. Early curtain partitions had been constructed of wooden utilizing the heaviest manageable timber that was accessible regionally. The timber was pushed to a comparatively shallow depth within the floor after which strengthened with cross timbers and propped from behind to withstand battering. Timber partitions had been weak to assault by hearth and had been changed with stone as fort design developed. By the late 11th century practically all curtain partitions had been being constructed from stone. Stone partitions had been additionally weak to fireside as excessive warmth may cause cracking and heaving.

The peak of the curtain wall elevated in response to developments in siege gear, the extra trendy designs being able to pitching projectiles over the decrease partitions. Nevertheless, because the wall peak elevated, so did the load and the steadiness was decreased. This decreased stability made the bottom of the wall weak to breaching and undermining. The hazard of breaching was mitigated to a level by constructing a thicker sloped base to the wall (known as a batter).

Each fort wall, no matter its peak or width, is a large and intensely heavy constructions and should be effectively based on rock or different agency materials. If the bottom was not robust sufficient to assist the partitions, then giant trenches would should be dug and stuffed with rubble in an analogous method to trendy constructing foundations. The wall was then raised on the foundations or bedrock. The commonest building was to construct a shell of stone slabs, every minimize to a daily form, then fill the shell with a compacted rubble core. As soon as full, the wall could be topped with a parapet after which plastered to guard it from weathering.


A method of breaching a fort wall was to tunnel beneath it. Miners would dig beneath the partitions, propping the partitions above as they went with wood helps. As soon as sufficient of the wall was undermined and propped, the wooden could be set alight. Because the tunnel collapsed, the wall would fall into the opening, hopefully making a spot giant sufficient for the attackers to interrupt by means of. Examples of castles that had been attacked by undermining embrace Dover Fortress and Rochester Fortress. Clearly the usefulness of undermining as an offensive approach depended to a big diploma on the founding of the partitions. Partitions based on onerous rock, for instance granite, would current a major problem for miners.

Arrow and Gun Loops

An arrow loop at Framlingham Fortress

Initially, arrows had been of little use when defending a fort as they might not simply penetrate the chain mail armour worn by attackers. The crossbow, a way more highly effective weapon, was in a position to pierce armour and had a better vary than the extraordinary bow. With this improvement, castles started to be constructed with arrow loops. These had been often constructed in order that defenders might hearth down at attackers close to the bottom of partitions or different weak factors. Arrow loops had been designed with a funnel form, with a large opening tapering right down to a slender slit. This gave archers a sideways vary of their intention whereas being effectively protected.

The later improvement of the gun result in a modification of the design of loops to accommodate it. Gun loops are often solely current within the gatehouse.

Gates and Portcullis

The portcullis at Stirling Fortress.

Fortress gates had been often constructed of wooden, bolstered with iron bars. It’s probably that they might have been of very heavy building, nevertheless, few authentic gates survive so the precise strategies of building aren’t completely sure. The gate was often backed by a wood bar that slotted into holes within the wall to brace it closed. Regardless of their power and bracing the gate remained essentially the most weak a part of any effectively designed castles. Stronger castles had a gatehouse to allow the defenders to interact enemies making an attempt to interrupt down the gate.

A portcullis is a steel grille that was lowered down in entrance of a gate when the fort was below assault. The portcullis protected the gate each from battering and from fires. As soon as lowered, the portcullis was often jammed from above to forestall it being lifted. In some castles, the portcullis was designed to be lowered behind attackers, trapping them in a passageway wherein they could possibly be attacked from both homicide holes or arrow loops. Massive or refined castles might have an entire collection of portcullis by means of the gate passages.

This chapter describes the primary options of a fort that served its home objective. All true castles would have all of those options, albeit of various measurement and magnificence.

Above Floor

Warkworth Fortress, displaying the situation of the most important rooms

The primary home areas of the fort had been on the higher flooring of the fort away from the noise (and smells!) of the extra public areas beneath. The plan to the correct exhibits the format of the principal rooms in a typical fort:

  1. The vestibule
  2. The corridor
  3. The chapel
  4. The good chamber
  5. The kitchens
  6. The pantry and buttery

The Vestibule

A vestibule is a room or house between the doorway and the primary correct room of the fort. It supplies an “airlock” between the surface and the inside areas of the fort.

The Corridor

The Nice Corridor of Durham Fortress. Durham Fortress is of Norman design, though the corridor was not added till the 14thcentury, the big 19th century window being extra typical of this era. The ceiling is 14m excessive and the corridor 30m lengthy.

The corridor (or nice corridor if there was a couple of corridor within the fort) was the primary room of the fort. The corridor was used for consuming, sleeping and conducting the enterprise of the fort and its estates.

The same old design was an oblong room with a excessive ceiling. One finish of the corridor would have had a dais the place the fort proprietor and household would have dined. The nice chamber was generally situated instantly behind or above the dais. Initially the corridor was utilized by each the proprietor, his family and the servants for consuming and sleeping, however in later castles the servants made use of a subsidiary corridor and the proprietor had moved to the nice chamber.

The corridor was often on the primary or second flooring of the maintain, with the house beneath used for cellars. The corridor often occupied two “flooring” of the maintain, having a double peak ceiling. The higher degree would generally have a mural gallery, a walkway by means of the wall. Home windows could be place excessive as much as present mild – the later the design of the fort, the larger the home windows.

The scale of the corridor meant that generally the span of the ceiling was too nice to be supported by the aspect partitions alone. In these circumstances a supporting wall bisecting the corridor may need been constructed.

The corridor was the place the place the proprietor entertained his visitors, so it was as splendidly embellished as he might afford. The partitions would have been plastered or whitewashed then embellished. The very wealthy would have had embellished glass home windows, though in contrast to in the present day these had been made to be detachable so the proprietor might take them with him on his travels spherical his estates as they had been extraordinarily costly.

The Chapel

The chapel of Carisbrooke Fortress

Faith permeated each side of medieval life, so the chapel was an integral and vital a part of each fort. Most castles would have had at the very least two chapels – a non-public one, close to the corridor or nice chamber, for using the proprietor, and one other for the remainder of the fort’s inhabitants. The general public chapels had been usually situated within the bailey.

A chapel would have been aligned with the altar to the east and the doorway to the west, the traditional observe for Christian church buildings. Additionally like church buildings of the interval, the chapel would have been richly embellished, maybe with tapestries protecting the partitions.

In addition to conducting non secular ceremonies, the chaplain would have been concerned within the administrative work of the fort. This was because of the chaplain being one of many few folks within the fort who was probably to have the ability to learn and write.

The Nice Chamber

The nice chamber was the non-public room of the fort’s proprietor and, generally, his quick household. It allowed him to sleep and eat individually from the remainder of the family. The use and design of the chamber developed over time. Because the fort turned extra of a house than a defensive fortification, the chamber elevated in significance. Finally it could become a set of rooms. In early designs, the chamber would have been heated by braziers, later designs incorporating fireplaces.

The chamber additionally served as a treasury, so it needed to be in a safe location. In Norman castles the chamber is often positioned subsequent to the corridor and in later designs instantly above the corridor, accessed by a stairway. The Chamberlain was accountable for the treasury.

Furnishings was comparatively uncommon in early castles. Nevertheless, the chamber would have a four-poster mattress, with curtains to cut back the draughts, chests, chairs and, probably, a free standing wood tub or wash stand.

The Kitchens

A typical fort kitchen, though that is from Doune Fortress in Scotland.

The fort kitchen was often in a separate constructing quite than the primary maintain, albeit joined by a lined passageway to permit meals to carried rapidly and simply to the corridor. The calorie consumption of a typical man in medieval instances was more likely to be a lot larger than in the present day. Nearly no matter their career, they might have been concerned in onerous bodily labour. This meant that the manufacturing of huge portions of meals was important in a fort, that means a big kitchen.

The primary characteristic of the kitchen would have been its fireplaces. These would have given off an infinite quantity of warmth making the kitchen very uncomfortable to work in. The fires had been the explanation the kitchen was often in a unique constructing – there was an excellent likelihood that the constructing could possibly be burnt to the bottom. The kitchen would both have a effectively or the effectively could be close by outdoors to supply a provide of fresh water for cooking.

The kitchen flooring would in all probability have been saved lined with straw or an analogous materials to take in spillages. On the finish of every day these would have been swept down a waste chute into the moat or collected up if no chute was offered.

Ovens to bake bread would often be situated subsequent to the fireplaces. The oven was heated by filling it with burning wooden till the bricks had been heated proper by means of. Then the oven was swept clear and the meals put inside – the retained warmth within the bricks cooking the meals.

The Pantry, Larder and Buttery

The pantry was the storage and preparation room for common provisions that weren’t being ready within the kitchen. The title derives from the French phrase for bread, ache. The pantler was accountable for the pantry.

The larder was below the management of the larderer and was used to retailer meat and fish.

The buttery was for the storage of “butts” of ale and different alcohol. It was the accountability of the butler. Because the storage and management of alcohol was crucial, essentially the most reliable servant was put in cost. This result in the butler taking the function of head of the home family.

It was pretty typical for the buttery and pantry to be constructed on the reverse finish of the corridor to the nice chamber. For storing costly items, like spices, an ambury (a cabinet constructed into the wall) was used.

The Brewery

Water was not often drunk because it was usually unsafe, significantly close to a fort the place the watercourses had been more likely to be contaminated with illness pathogens from sewage and different waste. The brewing course of removes impurities and destroys dangerous micro organism, making ale protected to drink. As such it was the drink of alternative for all however those that could not afford it. Later, ale was flavoured with hops producing beer. Given the excessive demand for ale and beer each main fort would have had its personal brewery to supply for the residents.


The dovecote from Newark Fortress, in Scotland

Castles would have saved doves for the meals from the birds themselves, their eggs and for carrying messages. The earliest identified proof of dove retaining in an English fort was within the Norman interval (across the 12th century) with Rochester Fortress having nest-holes within the maintain. The primary identifiable dovecote is considerably later, across the 14th century.

Beneath Floor

The Cellars

The fort cellars had been often below the nice corridor (which was on the primary or second flooring of the maintain). It was used for common storage in addition to these issues usually anticipated in a fort – weapons, armour and different navy provides. The fort designers would have tried to make sure the cellar was fireproof as its destruction, with its giant provides of meals, might have result in the fast defeat of the fort garrison.

The Dungeons

It could be stunning, however really only a few castles had been constructed with a dungeon. The underground areas seen in castles and chateau ruins in the present day had been practically at all times cellars or different storage areas. The rationale there have been no dungeons was as a result of there have been no prisoners. The legal justice system of the interval tended to result in folks being discovered not responsible, or being hung. Cells or dungeons had been solely required if for some motive a suspected legal wanted to be held pending trial, however this was quite uncommon.

Later, because the legal justice system developed, underground areas of castles had been generally become prisons. These cellars had been not required for his or her authentic objective because the fort was not required to carry shops towards a protracted siege. So that they made handy locations to carry criminals.

Design Options


A garderobe, this one is in Chirk Fortress, Wales

A garderobe was the medieval equal of a rest room. There was often a number of in every of the primary fort rooms. Usually they might be positioned subsequent to or throughout the fort partitions. If the fort partitions weren’t thick sufficient to comprise the garderobe, it could be constructed on brackets outdoors the wall, hanging instantly over the ditch or moat. The strategy to a garderobe was dog-legged to cut back the quantity of odour escaping again into the fort. There was little sophistication to a garderobe – it was only a gap, lined with a wood bench that both opened on to the surface or to a chute. Whatever the methodology of disposal, the deposits needed to be usually cleared away – probably essentially the most disagreeable job in a fort.


A typical fort staircase in turnpike design, this one is at Foulksrath Fortress

As castles are often constructed on a number of ranges, staircases are an vital part of the design. The defensive power of a fort may be considerably affected by the design and positioning of the staircase. The place a staircase is contained in the fort wall, it creates a weak level that may be focused by siege engines. To keep away from making a thinner wall, staircases had been generally constructed outdoors the tower or maintain.

A second consideration was the course of a spiral staircase. As soon as an enemy had entered the fort, the staircases could possibly be made simpler to defend by making them spiral. In what is called a “turnpike” association, the steps spiral so {that a} defender larger up the staircase is free to make use of his sword arm whereas the attacker has restricted motion.

Lastly, staircases could also be positioned on alternate sides of the construction (for instance, from floor to first flooring the staircase is on the north aspect, from first to second flooring, it’s on the south aspect). This association means the attackers should combat their approach throughout the ground to achieve the following staircase. In some designs, the rooms could be cut up in half with a wall and doorway creating an additional defensive level.


In early castles, warmth was offered by free-standing braziers and central fireside fires. The hearth was developed in round 1100 and commenced to be included in fort design from that time onwards. The hearth result in a serious change contained in the fort because it eliminated the central fires, making a wider, open house and lowering the quantity of smoke and soot. This in flip result in the rising ornament of the vital rooms, just like the corridor and nice chamber.


A donkey wheel operated effectively at Carisbrooke Fortress

It’s a basic design tenet or a fort that it wants to have the ability to survive a chronic siege. The supply of a dependable supply of ingesting water contained in the fort is due to this fact important. The effectively must be positioned so it couldn’t be captured whereas different areas of the fort continued to withstand the attackers. Because of this at the very least one effectively would usually be contained in the maintain itself. An extra effectively would typically be positioned close to the kitchen.

Nevertheless, provision of wells was a major drawback for a lot of castles. A fort was usually constructed on excessive, typically rocky, floor, making it troublesome to sink a effectively. Additionally the effectively needed to be deep sufficient in order that it could not be contaminated by sewage or waste from the fort. In some designs, the higher components of the effectively had been stone lined to attempt to stop contamination and plenty of would have had a canopy for once they weren’t in use.

When the effectively was significantly deep, lifting adequate water for the fort inhabitants would have been a back-breaking job. To mitigate this, donkey wheels had been generally put in to supply energy for the lifting mechanism.

Castles in England have been constructed from various supplies together with stone, brick, timber, lead, iron and tin. To a big diploma the selection of fabric for the primary partitions was pushed by the supply of native provides and, in later years the place defensive power was much less vital, trend.

The earliest castles had been constructed primarily of wooden, regionally sourced because the transportation of felled timber over lengthy distances was each impractical and costly.

Work on the fort building couldn’t often happen within the winter or early spring because it was too troublesome to work in moist circumstances. Even when work might happen, the sheer measurement of a fort meant it could take a few years to construct – for instance, Dover Fortress took 10 years to construct.


For stone constructed castles the foundations would, wherever potential, been constructed instantly onto the bedrock. The builders would dig right down to the rock earlier than leveling it to create the strongest potential basis. The stones for the partitions could be laid instantly onto the bedrock. If there was no appropriate bedrock or it was too deep, then an analogous strategy to that used in the present day for buildings could be used. The builders would dig a deep and huge trench, then fill it with rubble that was packed down as firmly as potential to create a stable basis. The wall stones could be constructed on the compacted rubble.


Partitions had been usually constructed of stone inside wood frames designed to carry the stone in place whereas the mortar dried. For thick partitions, the wall was often constructed with a cavity that was stuffed with rubble quite than being stable stone. The place power was not so very important, the cavity generally contained a staircase. Scaffolding was used because the wall grew larger. It was held in place by inserting horizontal wood scaffold beams into putlog holes constructed into the wall.


A moat is usually both a dry or water stuffed ditch. Mostly it was constructed by increasing or diverting an current watercourse. In some circumstances the fort could be constructed on a peninsula and even an island. In Guernsey, Fortress Cornet goes even additional and the ocean performs the operate of a moat.

Developing a moat from scratch was a major effort requiring onerous labour.

On this chapter we’ll discover the broader setting of the fort, together with the lands put aside for meals manufacturing and recreation. Even the smallest fort housed a large employees and native meals manufacturing was important significantly in instances of conflict.

Meals Manufacturing

Farms and Orchards

Fish Ponds

A medieval fish pond, Pirton Pool. {Photograph} by Philip Halling

In the course of the winter, supplying recent meals for the fort garrison was a continuing wrestle. Though meat could be accessible from deer parks, this could not provide the wants of the entire family. A fish pond offered a sublime answer. So long as there was a pure movement of water into the pond, fish required no feeding and had been accessible all 12 months spherical. There would often be a collection of ponds, with fish being moved between them as they grew.

Deer Parks

Searching was a preferred exercise for fort homeowners and their family, and a deer park offered a leisure facility in addition to meals for the desk. The park was constructed by digging a ditch and elevating a rampart across the edge, topping the rampart with a fence. The design was the other of a fort’s defences, with the ditch on the within, because the intention was to maintain the deer in. The parks had been protected by Forest Legislation, which additionally banned the looking of boar, hare and wolf. The fort proprietor required a license from the king to assemble a deer park, which, together with the extra common ban on deer looking, made venison an unique meat. Thus the fort proprietor with a deer park was in a position to enormously impress guests by serving venison.


Mills had been required for the manufacturing of flour. They had been giant and costly, and a major income, so the fort property would often have a watermill, windmills being comparatively uncommon throughout the age of the fort.


Earlier than the 14th century, the combating power of a fort – its knights and peasant troopers – would have lived outdoors the fort. The knights equipped their very own horses and gear as a part of their feudal dedication. Later the feudal system started to get replaced with standing armies {of professional} troopers. The fort proprietor had to supply this military with board and lodgings. Usually these barracks had been constructed contained in the outer bailey.


The Tiltyard

Horse Guards Parade in London, a former tiltyard.

If something appears inextricably linked with the fort, it is the tiltyard. This was place the place knights practised their expertise, and tournaments and jousting competitions had been held. They had been solely commonplace in later medieval castles.

A match was a common mêlée the place teams of knights fought one another in a trial of talent. Jousting the place two knights journey at one another, occurred throughout tournaments however was extra a characteristic of the match than the primary occasion. Jousting as an occasion in its personal proper turned more and more common from in regards to the 12th century because it allowed particular person knights to show their talent and braveness. Massive sums of cash had been on provide for the winners, however dropping might imply the lack of a fortune and even life.

On this chapter we have a look at the methods a fort could possibly be attacked, and the weapons that had been used. As has been the case all through historical past the event of weapons was sooner than the technique of defence ensuing within the eventual obsolescence of the fort.

An assault on a fort often took one in all two varieties: an try and storm the fort or the laying of a siege within the hope of driving the defenders to give up.

The Siege

Illustration of a medieval siege

If a fort was held by an affordable sized power, it could be rather more troublesome to seize with out a siege, though treachery by a member of the fort garrison by, say, opening the gates to the enemy, was definitely not unknown. Within the medieval interval, it was nearly unimaginable to launch a shock assault as a military merely couldn’t advance rapidly sufficient with out warning being handed to the fort.

As soon as the siege had begun there have been various methods the attackers might attempt to defeat the fort. They might:

  • Use siege engines to attempt to smash down the partitions
  • Use siege gear, like ladders and wheeled ramps, to attempt to scale the partitions
  • Tunnel below the partitions to undermine them
  • Use a battering ram to smash down the gates or robust partitions
  • Set hearth to the partitions, or fling burning materials contained in the partitions to set the buildings inside alight
  • Try to starve out the defenders
  • Try to unfold illness by means of the fort by flinging sick animals or lifeless our bodies over the partitions

Siege Engines

Siege engines had been utilized by the attackers both to attempt to kill the defenders instantly, or weaken the fort to the purpose the place it could possibly be efficiently stormed.


An illustration of a mangonel.

The mangonel was related in design to a big catapult and used the torsion in a twisted rope to energy the arm. Its predominant use was to assault the fort partitions quite than the defenders because it hurled stones or different ammunition at excessive pace however at too shallow an angle to achieve the highest of the wall. The mangonel had a bucket at one finish that could possibly be stuffed with completely different supplies relying on the state of affairs. For instance, burning barrels of pitch might have been thrown to set hearth to the underside of the partitions with the intention of weakening the cement, making the wall simpler to break down. The mangonel was pretty inaccurate making it finest suited to assaults on stretches of wall quite than pinpoint assaults.


A trebuchet. The bucket to the left was stuffed with munitions.

The trebuchet was a later improvement and supplanted the mangonel because of its better energy and accuracy. It was additionally extra versatile, being able to placing the fort partitions in addition to lifting objects over the partitions to assault the inside of the fort. It used a counterweight to drive the arm, offering extra energy than the twisted rope utilized by mangonels. It additionally had a sling to carry the payload which had a mechanism for releasing it on the proper level to attain the utmost vary. Data of using trebuchets counsel that the most important might hearth rocks of as much as 1,500 kg (though smaller stones should certainly have been extra usually used) and will obtain a charge of fireplace of 1 stone each 15 seconds. The utmost vary assorted however was in all probability between 200 and 300 toes.

The trebuchet was essentially the most superior of the siege engines and was not changed till the appearance of gunpowder.

A trebuchet constructed from 13th century plans in 2005 stood some 18 meters excessive and weighed greater than 22 tons, giving some concept of the big scale of those weapons. Given this, it’s probably they had been both damaged down for transport or absolutely assembled on website.


The ballista was in use in Roman instances. It was related in design to a crossbow and was used to fireside bolts of iron or stones. It had primarily fallen into disuse having been changed by the more practical trebuchet and mangonel.

The siege engine could possibly be used to throw decaying or diseased our bodies over the wall within the hope of infecting and weakening the fort garrison.


Mining, digging below a fort’s partitions, could possibly be performed for 2 causes. The primary, and commonest, motive was to weaken the wall above the mine. The attackers would tunnel beneath the wall, shoring up the tunnel with timber props. As soon as the mine was full, a hearth could be set to burn out the props and collapse the tunnel, hopefully bringing the wall down. A mine may be sunk to construct a route into the fort for the attackers to launch a shock assault. If a mine was suspected, the defenders might dig a counter mine.


Early Motte and Bailey castles had been constructed of wooden, making hearth an efficient weapon. The hearth could possibly be set in various methods, often by both constructing a hearth towards the wall or by launching burning arrows into the fort, utilizing archers. Fireplace was a a lot much less efficient weapon towards a stone fort. Though a hearth could possibly be set amongst the timber buildings throughout the bailey, it was typically out of vary of an arrow and simply extinguished by the defenders. William the conqueror ordered for all new castles to be constructed out of stone to resolve the issue.

Direct Assault

There are a variety of the way of assaulting a fort: excessive of the partitions utilizing towers or ladders, below the partitions utilizing a mine, or by means of the partitions utilizing a battering ram, pickaxes or different instruments.

Siege Tower

A siege tower is a cellular tower, often constructed from wooden, that gives safety for these attacking the fort whereas permitting them to achieve entry over the partitions. The tower was generally coated with water-soaked hides to cut back the danger of fireplace being set by hearth arrows or Greek hearth. Towers turned bigger and extra refined over time. By the point of the siege of Kenilworth Fortress in 1266 the towers in use might maintain 11 catapults and over 200 archers every.

Siege towers fell out of use with the event of the cannon. The cannon was able to smashing the excessive partitions of the fort, eradicating the necessity for the attackers to enter the fort over the partitions.


A sow is a cellular armoured shelter. They protected attackers working on the base of the fort wall from missiles dropped from above by the defenders. They had been typically used to permit employees to strategy and fill the moat to create a causeway in order that the siege tower could possibly be maneuvered to strategy the wall.

Battering Ram

Assault on the partitions of a besieged city with a battering ram.

A battering ram is a designed to interrupt the gates or partitions of a fort by means of repeated heavy impacts. The primary rams had been giant tree trunks carried by hand and crashed into the wall as onerous as potential.

Later extra refined siege engines had been constructed with wheels that enclosed the ram below an arrow-proof roof. This allowed the attacker’s to maneuver the ram near the wall or gate shielded from the defenders. The ram itself could be hung by chains or ropes enabling it to be swung freely.

Rams had been simplest towards wood gates or gentle stone partitions. More durable stone, equivalent to granite, had been rather more resistant however might nonetheless be defeated finally by a ram.

This desk is the important thing to the Fortress catalogue.


There are three castles of be aware within the county of Bedfordshire.

Identify Sort Date Situation Possession (Key)
/ Entry
Bedford Fortress Preserve and bailey 110112th century Archaeological stays HALUKAL icon.svg Largely demolished following well-documented 8-week siege by Henry III, with round 2000 males, in 1224.
Someries Fortress Fortified manor home 140115th century Fragmentary stays HCCL icon.svg Brick-built, by no means accomplished, on website of earlier constructing, ruined gatehouse and chapel survive, the rest demolished 1742.
Totternhoe Fortress Motte and bailey 110112th century Earthworks HALUKAL icon.svg Motte and three baileys in distinguished place.

Bedford Fortress

Remaining motte of Bedford Fortress

Bedford Fortress was a medieval fort constructed after 1100 by Henry I. The fort performed a distinguished half in civil conflict of the Anarchy within the mid-12th century and within the First Barons’ Struggle firstly of the 13th century. The fort was considerably prolonged in stone, though the ultimate plan of the fort stays unsure. Henry III besieged the fort in 1224 the siege lasting eight weeks and involving a military of as many as 2,700 males. After the give up of the fort, the king ordered its destruction. Though partially refortified within the 17th century throughout the English Civil Struggle, the fort remained a wreck till the city growth in Bedford throughout the 19th century, when homes had been constructed throughout a lot of the property. At present solely a part of the motte nonetheless stands, forming a part of an archaeological park constructed on the location between 2007 and 2009.

Someries Fortress

Someries Fortress (generally spelt Summeries Fortress) is a Scheduled Historic Monument, within the Parish of Hyde, close to the city of Luton, Bedfordshire. It was constructed within the 15th century by Sir John Wenlock. Though at all times known as a fort it was really a fortified manor home.

The title of “Someries Fortress” was derived from William de Someries, who had a residence on this website, however the title “fort” is contentious because it hardly describes the construction to which it’s utilized. The location was acquired by Wenlock in 1430 and constructing the mansion commenced. The home is exclusive in that it’s thought to be one of many first brick buildings in England. The home was by no means accomplished by Wenlock, and was partly demolished within the 18th century. The brickwork can nonetheless be seen within the stays of the gatehouse, incorporating the chapel and lodge, which nonetheless stands in the present day.

The stays of the unique manor home and/or the sooner Norman Fortress are actually seen solely as earthworks that define the plot the place the home initially stood, though stays of the gatehouse to the precise manor home and the chapel that was linked to it, are nonetheless partially standing. Some bricks from the manor home had been used to construct the close by farm homes within the 17th century.

Totternhoe Fortress

Totternhoe Fortress is a medieval fort in Bedfordshire. It overlooks the village of Totternhoe and was constructed throughout the Norman interval, in all probability throughout the years of the Anarchy. It’s a motte-and-bailey design, with two baileys quite than the extra traditional one. A large ditch protects three sides of the fort, with the fourth protected by the sting of the chalk hill on which the fort is located.


There are two castles in Berkshire.

Identify Sort Date Situation Possession
/ Entry
Notes (Key)
Donnington Fortress Fortress 1386c.1386 Fragment EHEH icon.svg Constructed by Richard Abberbury the Elder, destroyed in Civil Struggle, gatehouse survives.
Windsor Fortress Preserve and bailey 110112–19th century Intact Royal palace Restored and prolonged by Wyatt and Wyattville, 1800–30.

Donnington Fortress

Donnington Castle - - 35386.jpg

Stays of Fortress Donnington

Donnington Fortress is a ruined medieval fort, located within the small village of Donnington, simply north of the city of Newbury in Berkshire. It was constructed by its authentic proprietor, Richard Abberbury the Elder, below a licence granted by Richard II in 1386. The surviving fort gatehouse dates from this time. The fort was subsequently purchased by Thomas Chaucer, the son of the poet Geoffrey Chaucer, as a residence for his daughter Alice, who later turned Duchess of Suffolk. This household later fell out with the Tudor monarchs, and the fort turned a Royal property. Each King Henry VIII and Queen Elizabeth I visited Donnington Fortress, in 1539 and 1568 respectively.

The fort was initially in-built an oblong type, with a curtain wall cornered by 4 spherical towers, two sq. wall towers, and a considerable gatehouse, constructed round a courtyard. The courtyard buildings had been in all probability of timber building and probably included a corridor, kitchen, and visitor lodgings.

By the point the English Civil Struggle broke out in 1643, the fort was owned by the Parliamentarian John Packer household however after the First Battle of Newbury it was taken for the King, Charles I, and held by Sir John Boys. They rapidly constructed defences on the slopes of the hill in a star form. The projections had been for gun emplacements, the scarps and platforms of which survive in the present day. Regardless of being besieged for a lot of the conflict, it needed to be relieved by the King on two events, the fort succeeded in guarding the most important routes from London to the West Nation and Oxford to Southampton. In the course of the Second Battle of Newbury, the fort was in a position to maintain off the Parliamentary attackers. Lastly, after an eighteen month siege, the garrison, after acquiring the Kings permission, deserted the broken fort and had been allowed to rejoin Royalist forces in Wallingford.

In 1646 Parliament voted to demolish the fort leaving solely the gatehouse remaining, which was then restored to John Packer. All that is still of the fort in the present day is the substantial 4 towered gatehouse, and the encompassing earthworks.

The fort is now within the care of English Heritage and is a scheduled historic monument quantity 233041. The gatehouse is 2 tales excessive and roofed at battlement degree. The exterior partitions of the fort have been rebuilt to a peak of 50 centimetres to point the unique format. The short-term Civil Struggle works stay for essentially the most half as scarps averaging 1.7m excessive.

Windsor Fortress

A schematic map, with dark green parts of the castle on a light green background, individual locations marked out in red letters.

Plan of Windsor Fortress. Key: A: The Spherical Tower, B: The Higher Ward, The Quadrangle, C: The State Flats, D: Personal Flats, E: South Wing, F: Decrease Ward, G: St George’s Chapel, H: Horseshoe Cloister, Okay: King Henry VIII Gate, L: The Lengthy Stroll, M: Norman Gate, N: North Terrace, O: Edward III Tower, T: The Curfew Tower

Windsor Fortress is a medieval fort in Windsor, Berkshire. The unique fort was constructed after the Norman invasion by William the Conqueror. For the reason that time of Henry I it has been utilized by a succession of monarchs and is the longest-occupied palace in Europe.

Initially designed to guard Norman dominance across the outskirts of London, and to supervise a strategically vital a part of the River Thames, Windsor Fortress was constructed as a motte and bailey, with three wards surrounding a central mound. Steadily changed with stone fortifications, the fort withstood a chronic siege throughout the First Barons’ Struggle firstly of the 13th century. Henry III constructed an opulent royal palace throughout the fort throughout the center of the century.

Windsor Fortress survived a tumultuous interval throughout the English Civil Struggle, wherein the fort was used as a navy headquarters for Parliamentary forces and a jail for Charles I. In the course of the Restoration, Charles II rebuilt a lot of Windsor Fortress with the assistance of architect Hugh Could, making a set of extravagant, Baroque interiors. After a interval of neglect throughout the 18th century, George III and George IV renovated and rebuilt Charles II’s palace at colossal expense.

Windsor Fortress occupies a big website of greater than 13 acres and combines the options of a fortification, a palace, and a small city. It’s in essence a Georgian and Victorian design primarily based on a medieval construction, with Gothic options reinvented in a contemporary type. For the reason that 14th century, structure on the fort has tried to provide a recent reinterpretation of older fashions and traditions, repeatedly imitating outmoded and even antiquated types.


There is just one fort in Buckinghamshire.

Identify Sort Date Situation Possession
/ Entry
Notes (Key)
Boarstall Tower Fortified manor home 1312c.1312 Fragment ENTNTE icon.svg Moated website, gatehouse survives, altered 16–17th centuries, the rest of home demolished 18th century, transformed to deal with 20th century.

Boarstall Tower

Boarstall Tower is a 14th-century moated gatehouse situated in Boarstall, Buckinghamshire and now, with its surrounding gardens, a Nationwide Belief property.

The gatehouse was constructed by John de Haudlo in 1312 and is all that is still of Boarstall Home, a fortified manor home that was demolished in 1778. Though it was up to date in 1615 to be used as a banqueting pavilion or looking lodge, it retained its mediaeval belfry, cross loops and crenellations. The outside and plenty of rooms are basically unchanged. The property is tenanted with restricted opening preparations. Exterior rooms stay nearly unchanged since 1615.


There are seven castles of be aware in Cambridgeshire.

Identify Sort Date Situation Possession
/ Entry
Notes (Key)
Buckden Towers Fortified manor home 120113–15th century Fragment Claretian convention centre Renamed Buckden Towers, partly demolished and remnants included with 19th century home.
Elton Corridor Fortified manor home 1477c.1477 Fragment HHHH icon.png Gatehouse survives, included in constructing of 1662–1689, remodelled and prolonged 18–19th centuries.
Kimbolton Fortress Castellated home 160117–18th century Intact College Web site of medieval fort, rebuilt and later remodelled by Vanbrugh 1707–10.
Kirtling Tower Fortified manor home 1530c.1530 Fragment NGS 150116th century gatehouse on website of moated Saxon fort.
Longthorpe Tower Tower home 12631263–1300 Intact EHEH icon.svg Elaborate scheme of home medieval wall work.
Northborough Fortress Fortified manor home 13301330–40 Fragment Personal residence Gatehouse and corridor survive, with 16–17th century alterations.
Woodcroft Fortress Quadrangular fort 1280c.1280 Liveable fragment Personal residence West vary of authentic constructing survives, with alterations.

Buckden Towers

Entrance to Buckden Towers

Buckden Towers is a 12th century fortified manor home in Buckden, Cambridgeshire. It was constructed within the late 12th century, when information present it as getting used to deal with the Bishops of Lincoln. The tall brick tower was added in 1475, protected by partitions and a moat, and surrounded by an outer bailey. It was utilized by the bishops till 1842.

Little now stays of the bishops’ moated palace besides the nice tower, the inside gatehouse, a part of the battlemented wall, which used to encompass the inside courtroom throughout the moat, and the outer gate and wall.

Elton Corridor

Elton Corridor is a baronial corridor in Elton, Cambridgeshire. It has been the ancestral residence of the Proby household since 1660.

The corridor lies in an 3800 acre property by means of which the River Nene runs. The constructing incorporates 15th, 17th, 18th and 19th century components.

Kimbolton Fortress

Kimbolton Fortress in Kimbolton, Cambridgeshire is finest generally known as the ultimate residence of King Henry VIII’s first queen, Catherine of Aragon. Initially a medieval fort however transformed right into a stately palace, it was the household seat of the Dukes of Manchester from 1615 till 1950. It now homes Kimbolton College.

A wood motte and bailey fort was in-built Kimbolton, on a unique website, in Norman instances. Later, King John granted Geoffrey Fitz Peter, Earl of Essex permission to carry a good and market in Kimbolton, as a consequence of which a market place was created, with the present church at one finish and a brand new fort on the different. No stays of this fort stay, though it was constructed on the location of the current fort.

The fort went by means of numerous phases of possession till, by the 1520s, it belonged to the Wingfield household. The medieval fort was rebuilt as a Tudor manor home, components of which survive. Catherine of Aragon was despatched right here in April 1534 for refusing to surrender her standing or deny the validity of her marriage.

The fort was purchased by Sir Henry Montagu, later 1st Earl of Manchester, in 1615. His descendants owned the fort for 335 years till it was bought in 1951.

Kirtling Tower

The remaining Tudor gatehouse of Kirtling Tower

Kirtling Tower was a medieval fort and Tudor nation home in Cambridgeshire of which the gatehouse nonetheless stays. The primary documentary information for Kirtling Tower date from 1219, and the 13th century Kirtling Fortress was described as having a moat, a ditch and a palisade. In 1424 there was a considerable rebuilding of the fort by Richard de Beauchamp, the Earl of Warwick, with 100 oak bushes used to create a fancy with a parlour, a photo voltaic and chambers.

Edward North, a profitable lawyer, rebuilt the fort within the 1540s and between 1556 to 1558 utilizing the architect Francis Adams, renaming it Kirtling Corridor. The earthworks across the fort had been significantly altered to supply for a raised platform for the brand new home, which included modern Tudor options equivalent to a gatehouse, gallery, lodgings, a banqueting home and a backyard, full with grand water options and ponds. Queen Elizabeth I stayed on the fort in 1578 throughout her state procession throughout Cambridgeshire. The fort continued to develop, and by the 1660s was the most important nation home in Cambridgeshire, centred on a symmetrical two-storey south-facing vary, with east and west wings offering further lodging and services.

The fort went into decline after 1691 and by 1735 the Victoria County Historical past of the fort describes the property as being “in dysfunction”. A lot of the fort was pulled down in 1748 as a way to make the rest liveable for Lord Elibank, however the property went into decline once more after his demise in 1762. By the 1770s it was uninhabitable and a lot of the fort pulled down in 1801. Within the 1830s the gatehouse was become a residential property and was renamed Kirtling Tower; an extension was in-built 1872 and the home remained in use below a sequence of tenants.

The primary characteristic of the fort in the present day is the three-storey Tudor gatehouse, which intently resembles the gatehouse at Leez Priory, constructed by North’s good friend and fellow lawyer Richard Wealthy. Constructed of brick, it has octagonal turrets and an oriel window of Italian design. It’s a scheduled monument and a Grade I listed constructing.

Longthorpe Tower

Longthorpe Tower is a fourteenth century, three-storey tower within the village of Longthorpe which is a part of Peterborough about two miles to the west of the town centre.

It was added in 1310 to a fortified manor home. The inside incorporates the best-surviving instance of English medieval wall work in northern Europe, which survived below a layer of whitewash.

Northborough Fortress

The gatehouse to Northborough Fortress

Northborough Fortress, also called Northborough Corridor, is a medieval fortified manor home in Cambridgeshire. It was constructed between 1333 and 1336 by Roger Northburgh, the Bishop of Lichfield; of the unique manor, solely the gatehouse and the corridor nonetheless survive. The gatehouse is dominated by an enormous gateway, which, while it didn’t have a drawbridge or portcullis, offered appreciable safety to the manor behind it. The corridor typified the 14th century trend for improved lighting, with bay home windows positioned usually alongside the road of the corridor, and was embellished with wall work. Some 16th and 17th-century extensions to the fort had been made.

Woodcroft Fortress

Woodcroft Fortress is a transformed medieval fort within the parish of Etton, Cambridgeshire. It was constructed on the finish of the 13th century and named after the Woodcroft household who owned it at round this time. The medieval stays of the fort in the present day embrace a entrance, a round tower and a gatehouse. There’s debate as as to whether the unique fort adopted a traditional Edwardian quadrilateral design, of which most has since been misplaced, or if it was merely by no means absolutely accomplished. A later Tudor conversion retained these medieval parts into the present design.

Woodcroft Fortress was held by the Royalists throughout the Civil Struggle and was efficiently attacked and brought by Parliamentary forces in 1648.


There are six castles of be aware in Chesire.

Identify Sort Date Situation Possession
/ Entry
Notes (Key)
Beeston Fortress Enclosure fort 120113–14th century Ruins EHEH icon.svg Sited on crag excessive above Cheshire Plain, 19th century outer gatehouse.
Chester Fortress Preserve and bailey 110112th century Fragment EHEH icon.svg Agricola tower sole characteristic of medieval fort to outlive 18th century hearth.
Cholmondeley Fortress Neo-romantic fort 18011801–19 Intact HHHH icon.svg
Marquess of Cholmondeley
Remodeled into fort by Smirke, 1817–19.
Doddington Fortress Tower home 1403c.1403 Considerably intact Personal Also referred to as Delves Corridor, Constructing At Threat.
Halton Fortress Fortress 120113th century Fragmentary stays HCCL icon.svg
Duchy of Lancaster
Commanding place, 13th century tower, 18th century courthouse, folly of c.1800.
Peckforton Fortress Neo-romantic fort 18441844–50 Intact Lodge By Salvin, probably the final critical fortified residence in-built Britain.

Beeston Fortress

A contemporary bridge supplies entry to the gateway of the inside ward at Beeston Fortress.

Beeston Fortress is in Beeston, Cheshire and is perched on a rocky sandstone crag 350 ft above the Cheshire Plain. It was constructed within the 1220s by Ranulf de Blondeville, sixth Earl of Chester, on his return from the Crusades. In 1237, Henry III took over the possession of Beeston, and it was saved in good restore till the 16th century, when it was thought of to be of no additional navy use, though it was pressed into service once more in 1643, throughout the Civil Struggle. The fort was slighted in 1646, in accordance with Cromwell’s destruction order, to forestall its additional use as a stronghold. In the course of the 18th century the location was used as a quarry.

Not like many different castles of the interval, Beeston doesn’t have a maintain as its final line of defence. As an alternative the pure options of the land along with huge partitions, robust gate homes, and punctiliously positioned towers made the baileys themselves the stronghold. The defences consisted of two components. Firstly, an inside ward on the summit of the hill, with a sheer drop on three sides and a defensive ditch as much as 30 ft deep in locations minimize into the rock on the fourth aspect. Secondly, an outer bailey was constructed on the decrease slopes, with a large gatehouse protected by a 16 ft huge and 10 ft deep ditch.

The outer bailey was roughly rectangular, with 6 ft thick partitions confronted in sandstone and infilled with rubble. The partitions, components of which nonetheless stay, comprise various D-shaped towers, an innovation in English castles at the moment. The towers allowed defenders to fireside throughout the partitions in addition to forwards, and their open-backed design meant that they might not provide cowl to any attackers who gained entry to the outer bailey. The inside bailey was located on the rocky summit on the western finish of the crag.
To offer the fort’s inhabitants with a provide of recent water two wells had been dug into the rock, one in all them, at 370 ft deep, one of many deepest fort wells in England.

Chester Fortress

Chester Fortress is within the metropolis of Chester and is sited on the south west extremity of the world bounded by the town partitions. The fort stands on an eminence overlooking the River Dee. Within the fort advanced are the remaining components of the medieval fort. The fort was in-built 1070 by Hugh d’Avranches, 1st Earl of Chester. It’s potential that it was constructed on the location of an earlier Saxon fortification however this has not been confirmed. The unique construction would have been a motte and bailey fort with a wood tower. Within the 12th century the wood tower was changed by a sq. stone tower, the Flag Tower. Throughout the identical century the stone gateway to the inside bailey was constructed. That is now generally known as the Agricola Tower and on its first flooring is the chapel of St Mary de Castro. Within the 13th century, throughout the reign of Henry III, the partitions of an outer bailey had been constructed, the gateway within the Agricola Tower was blocked up and residential lodging, together with a Nice Corridor, was constructed alongside the south wall of the inside bailey. Later within the century, throughout the reign of Edward I, a brand new gateway to the outer bailey was constructed. This was flanked by two half-drum towers and had a drawbridge over a moat. Additional additions to the fort presently included particular person chambers for the King and Queen, a brand new chapel and stables.

In the course of the Civil Struggle Chester was held by the Royalists. The fort was assaulted by Parliamentary forces in July 1643, and in January and April 1645. Along with the remainder of the town, it was besieged between September 1645 and February 1646. Following the civil conflict the fort was used as a jail, a courtroom and a tax workplace.

Cholmondeley Fortress

Cholmondeley Fortress is a rustic home in Cholmondeley, Cheshire. It’s surrounded by a 7,500 acre property. The current home was constructed between 1801 and 1804 by George Cholmondeley, 1st Marquess of Cholmondeley. It was designed by the native architect William Turner who was directed by the Marquess to provide it the looks of “an previous Gothic Fortress”. In 1817–1819 turrets and towers had been added to provide it its current fort like look. An earlier home had been on the location courting from 1571. This was constructed of brick and timber framing and had been remodelled by Sir John Vanbrugh between 1713 and 1715.

Doddington Fortress

Doddington Fortress, also called Delves Corridor

Doddington Fortress, generally generally known as Delves Corridor, is a fortified construction in Doddington Park to the north of Doddington Corridor, Cheshire. The fortified tower was constructed by Sir John Delves in 1364 on the location of a former moated manor home. The tower was initially free-standing and was in all probability meant as a spot of refuge for the household. Within the 17th century it was included into a spread of home buildings which had been generally known as Doddington Corridor. Within the Civil Struggle the corridor turned a garrison for the parliamentary forces. It was taken for the king by John Byron, 1st Baron Byron in January 1644 however retaken shortly after. The home was demolished round 1777 and changed by the brand new Doddington Corridor, leaving the tower as a panorama characteristic which was probably used as a gazebo or a banqueting pavilion.

Halton Fortress

A part of Halton Fortress ruins in 2006

Halton Fortress is within the former village of Halton, Cheshire which is now a part of the city of Runcorn. The fort is located on the highest of Halton Hill overlooking the village. It was the seat of the Barons of Halton from the 11th century till the 14th century and it then handed to the Duchy of Lancaster. It was besieged twice within the Civil Struggle after which its construction deteriorated. Within the 18th century a brand new courthouse was constructed on the location of the earlier gatehouse. The fort lies in ruins other than the courthouse which has been transformed right into a public home.

Following the Norman conquest, the Barony of Halton was established by Hugh d’Avranches, 1st Earl of Chester. The primary baron to be appointed was Nigel of Cotentin and it’s nearly sure that he would have constructed a motte and bailey fort on the location, developing it from wooden, though the excavations in 1986–87 confirmed no proof of a motte and bailey construction or of a timber tower or palisade. It’s most possible that throughout the 12th century the wood construction was changed by a fort constructed from the native sandstone though no documentary proof of this stays. Particulars of the constructing works are obscure nevertheless it has been steered that John of Gaunt, the 14th baron, made alterations to the fort however this once more has not been confirmed by documentary proof. When the 15th baron, Henry Bolingbroke, ascended the throne as King Henry IV, the fort turned the property of the Duchy of Lancaster.

The earliest documentary proof of constructing work at Halton Fortress exhibits that throughout the 15th century and into the 16th century it was usually maintained. Between 1450 and 1457 a brand new gate tower was constructed. A survey of the Royal Palaces in 1609 means that by then the fort had fallen into disrepair. In the course of the Tudor interval it was used much less as a fortress and extra as a jail, an administrative centre, and a courtroom of regulation.

On the outbreak of the Civil Struggle the fort was garrisoned by the Royalists below the command of Captain Walter Primrose who had been appointed by Earl Rivers. It was besieged by Parliamentary forces below Sir William Brereton in 1643, and the Royalists finally surrendered after a number of weeks. On listening to of the strategy of superior Royalist forces led by Prince Rupert, the Parliamentarians deserted the fort and it was held once more for the Royalists below Colonel Fenwick. There was a second siege in 1644 however, because the fortunes of the Royalists declined elsewhere, they withdrew from Halton and the Parliamentarians below Sir William Brereton re-occupied the fort. In 1646 a “Council of Struggle” was held in Warrington the place it was determined that the defences of the castles at Halton and Beeston Fortress had been to be dismantled. In time this was achieved and Halton fort was to haven’t any additional navy operate. By 1650 the fort was mentioned to be “very ruinous”.

Peckforton Fortress

Peckforton Fortress from the courtyard displaying the corridor and the spherical tower

Peckforton Fortress is a rustic home constructed within the type of a medieval fort. It stands in woodland on the north finish of Peckforton Hills one mile north west of the village of Peckforton, Cheshire. The home was constructed in the midst of the 19th century as a household residence for John Tollemache, 1st Baron Tollemache, a rich Cheshire landowner, property supervisor, and Member of Parliament. It was designed by Anthony Salvin within the Gothic type.

View of the entrance gate of Peckforton Fortress.

The fort was constructed between 1844 and 1850 by Dean and Son of Leftwich, with Joseph Cookson of Tarporley appearing as clerk of works. Stone was obtained from a quarry about one mile to the west of the location, and a railway was constructed to hold the stone. The fort value £60,000.

The fort is confronted with crimson sandstone and has lead, asphalt and tile roofs. It’s primarily in three storeys with a five-storey tower. The buildings are organized round a ward with the principal lodging on the north aspect. It’s surrounded by a dry moat which is bridged on the gatehouse. To the west of the inside ward are the stables, the coach home, an oblong bell tower and the kitchens and repair space. To the north is the nice corridor vary which consists of 18 bays. Behind the doorway to the corridor is the round predominant tower. On the east finish of the gallery wing is the octagonal library tower. The outer partitions of the fort have full-height slender turrets on the adjustments in course. Corbel tables assist a part of the battlements. The partitions comprise arrow slots, and within the gatehouse is a garderobe. The flat roof has a crenellated parapet.

The fort had no formal backyard, however on the backside of the drive had been kitchen gardens which included vegetable gardens, an orchard, in depth glass homes and a big orangery.


There are in 14 castles in Cornwall.

County Durham

Auckland Fortress in County Durham

Auckland Fortress (also called Auckland Palace or regionally because the Bishop’s Fortress or Bishop’s Palace) is a fort within the city of Bishop Auckland in County Durham.

The fort has been the official residence of the Bishop of Durham since 1832. Nevertheless, it has been owned by the diocese for greater than 800 years, being established as a looking lodge for the Prince Bishops of Durham. It’s extra like a Gothic nation home than a real fort with a navy operate. The fort is surrounded by 800 acres of parkland, which was initially utilized by the Bishops for looking.

In round 1183 Bishop Pudsey established a manor home on the location. Bishop Bek, who most well-liked the city as his predominant residence over Durham Fortress because of its proximity to looking grounds, later transformed the manor home right into a fort. After the dis-establishment of the Church of England, on the finish of the primary civil conflict, Auckland Fortress was bought to Sir Arthur Hazelrig, who demolished a lot of the fort, together with the chapel, and constructed a mansion.

Barnard Fortress is a ruined medieval fort located within the city of the identical title in County Durham.
A stone fort was constructed on the location of an earlier defended place from round 1095 to 1125 by Man de Balliol. Between 1125 and 1185 his nephew Bernard de Balliol and his son Bernard II prolonged the constructing. In 1216 the fort was besieged by Alexander II of Scotland. It was nonetheless held by the Balliol household though its possession was disputed by the Bishops of Durham. When John Balliol was deposed as King of Scotland in 1296 the fort was handed to the Bishop of Durham. Round 1300 Edward I granted it to the Earl of Warwick. In 1477 throughout the Wars of the Roses, Richard, Duke of Gloucester (later Richard III) took possession of the fort, which turned one in all his favorite residences.

Over the following two centuries the Nevilles enlarged and improved the property and created a considerable and spectacular fort. Nevertheless when Charles Neville, sixth Earl of Westmorland was attainted for his main function within the Rising of the North the Neville estates had been sequestered.

Bishopton Fortress in County Durham

Bishopton Fortress was a medieval fort in County Durham. It was constructed by Roger de Conyers in 1143, within the village of Bishopton, close to to the city of Darlington.[1] Constructed in a motte-and-bailey design, the fort had two baileys, quite than the same old one, and initially had two giant enclosures past the baileys.[2] Within the 12th century it was surrounded by a low synthetic lake, fed by the brook to the west, and will solely be accessed by causeways.[3] De Conyers constructed the fort throughout a dispute with William Cumin, who laid declare to be the Bishop of Durham; de Conyers supported Cumin’s rival, William of St. Barbara.[4] Historian Lise Hull believes that the licence to crenellate given to de Conyers for his fort will be the first recorded occasion of this in England.[5]

Bowes Fortress in County Durham


Bowes Fortress was constructed on the location of a Roman fort that guarded the Stainforth Cross by means of the Pennines. The fort was constructed between 1171 and 1174. Throughout its historical past it was besieged twice, as soon as in 1216 and once more in 1322. Shortly after the second siege it was deserted and fell into wreck.

Brancepeth Fortress from the east, displaying the 2 19th-century gate towers (proper) and older chapel and curtain partitions (centre and left)

Brancepeth Fortress is within the village of Brancepeth in County Durham]] some 5 miles south west of the town of Durham.

A succession of buildings has been on the location. The primary was a Norman fort constructed by the Bulmers, which was rebuilt by the Nevilles within the late 14th century. For a few years the fort was owned by the Neville household till in 1569 it was confiscated by the Crown following the household’s involvement within the Rising of the North.

Brancepeth Fortress in 1782, earlier than its 19th-century growth

West aspect of the fort. The 19th-century addition to an older part of the fort may be seen beneath the left turret.

There have been various different homeowners since that point. Within the early 17th century the property was granted by the Crown to Robert Carr, 1st Earl of Somerset, from whom it subsequently confiscated the fort again because of his involvement in a poisoning scandal. In 1636, three males who had purchased the fort from the King’s Commissioners in 1633 bought it to Ralph Cole of Newcastle. His grandson, Ralph Cole MP, bought the property in about 1720 to Sir Henry Belaysyse. In 1796 the fort was acquired by the Russells.

The current constructing is essentially a 19th-century restoration carried out within the 1820s by John Matthew Russell and improved within the mid-19th century by architect Anthony Salvin for William Russell, (Excessive Sheriff of Durham in 1841).

Lumley Fortress is a 14th century quadrangular fort at Chester-le-Avenue close to to the town of Durham. It’s named for its authentic creator, Sir Ralph Lumley, who transformed his household manor home right into a fort in 1389 after getting back from wars in Scotland. Nevertheless, after being implicated in a plot to overthrow Henry IV he was imprisoned and in the end executed, forfeiting his lands to the Earl of Somerset. In 1421 the possession of the Fortress reverted to Sir Ralph Lumley’s grandson, Thomas.

South−east nook of Walworth Fortress

Walworth Fortress is a 16th century mansion home, constructed within the type of a medieval fort and located at Walworth, County Durham close to Darlington. It was accomplished round 1600, in all probability by Thomas Holt for Thomas Jenison. It stands on the location of a former manor home or fort constructed within the 12th century by the Hansard household.

The fort is constructed of partially rendered limestone rubble, and the roof is of Welsh slate. The west tower is older, and has gunloops, slender trefoil−headed and spherical−headed home windows. It has a predominant, south−going through constructing of 5 bays and three storeys between two 4−storey, spherical, angle towers, with east and west wings on the north aspect, making up three sides of a sq. initially open to the north. Nevertheless a spread of early 19th century buildings on the north aspect of the sq. now encloses the courtyard.

Some flagstones of unknown date had been found in situ within the cellar or basement of the fort in 2002. Inner renovation occurred in 1740, in order that the inside now has vital mid−18th century options, equivalent to Palladian plasterwork and Rococo particulars. In 1864 the primary staircase was rebuilt and the west wing was given a brand new entrance.

Witton Fortress is a a lot altered 15th century fort, which is the centrepiece of a vacation and caravan nation park at Witton le Put on close to Bishop Auckland.

Sir Ralph Eure obtained a licence to crenellate his manor home in 1410 and created the fort. The fort was held by Royalist Sir William Darcy throughout the English Civil Struggle. He compounded for the return of his confiscated property which was bought by his descendant Henry Darcy to William Cuthbert in 1743. The fort later handed to Hopper however was severely broken in a hearth which in 1796 destroyed a lot of the fort inside.

In 1816 Sir William Chaytor of Croft Corridor, Yorkshire bought the fort property for £78,000 and restored the material and rebuilt the inside in trendy type. The property was wealthy in coal and Witton Park colliery was sunk in 1825.


  • Brickstock, Richard. (2007) Fortress: Fortress, Palace, Faculty. Durham: Jeremy Mills Publishing. ISBN 9781905217243.
  • Creighton, Oliver Hamilton. (2005) Castles and Landscapes: Energy, Neighborhood and Fortification in Medieval England. London: Equinox. ISBN 9781904768678.
  • Hull, Lise E. (2006) Britain’s Medieval Castles. Westport: Praeger. ISBN 9780275984144.
  • Hull, Lise E. (2009) Understanding the Fortress Ruins of England and Wales: How you can Interpret the Historical past and Which means of Masonry and Earthworks. Jefferson, US: MacFarland. ISBN 9780786434572.
  • Pettifer, Adrian. (2002) English Castles: a Information by Counties. Woodbridge, UK: Boydell Press. ISBN 9780851157825.
  • Fry, Plantagenet Somerset, The David & Charles E book of Castles, David & Charles, 1980. ISBN 0-7153-7976-3


  1. Hull (2009), p.195.
  2. Pettifer, p.26.
  3. Creighton, p.14.
  4. Pettifer, p.26.
  5. Hull (2006), p.128.


Cumbria has maybe extra castles than every other county of England, a results of its proximity to the Scottish border.

Identify Sort Date Situation Picture Possession
/ Entry
Notes (Key)
Appleby Fortress Preserve and bailey 110112–17th century Restored Caesar's Tower inside Appleby castle - - 1505585.jpg Personal Restored 17th century by Woman Anne Clifford.
Armathwaite Fortress Tower home 140115th century Intact River Eden from Armathwaite Bridge - - 211411 cropped.jpg Personal Integrated in later buildings.
Arnside Tower Tower home 140115th century Ruins Arnside Tower from the south west - - 418663.jpg Personal Freestanding tower home.
Askerton Fortress Fortress 130114–16th century Restored Askerton Castle - - 958564.jpg Personal, farm Altered by Anthony Salvin.
Beetham Corridor Fortified manor home 130114th century Partly ruined Beetham Hall - - 862919.jpg Personal
Bewcastle Fortress Courtyard fort 130114–15th century Fragmentary ruins Bewcastle - - 1945279.jpg HCCL icon.svg Sited inside Roman fort.
Bewley Fortress Fortified manor home 120113–14th century Fragmentary ruins Personal As soon as a residence of the Bishops of Carlisle.
Blencow Corridor Fortified home 140115–16th century Intact Blencow Hall - - 1458342.jpg Vacation lodging Altered 1590.
Brackenburgh Previous Tower Pele tower 130114–15th century Considerably intact Personal Adjoining giant 19th century home.
Brackenhill Tower Tower home 15861586 Intact Vacation lodging Restored 21st century.
Branthwaite Corridor Pele tower 130114–15th century Intact Branthwaite Hall. - - 80423.jpg Personal 160117th century additions.
Brough Fortress Preserve and bailey 100111–14th century Ruins Brough Castle - - 1605399.jpg EHEH icon.svg Restored 1659–62 by Woman Anne Clifford.
Brougham Fortress Preserve and bailey 120113–14th century Ruins Brougham Castle - - 17714.jpg EHEH icon.svg Transformed into nation home in 17th century by Woman Anne Clifford.
Brougham Corridor Fortified manor home 120113–19th century Ruins Brougham Hall - - 1532.jpg Crafts centre Ruins of 19th century home incorporating stays of earlier constructing.
Broughton Tower Pele tower 130114th century Intact College Integrated in later constructing.
Burneside Corridor Tower home 130114th century Ruins Burneside Hall - - 1499618.jpg Personal
Carlisle Fortress Preserve and bailey 110112–15th century Considerably intact Carlisle Castle 03.jpg EHEH icon.svg Transformed to barracks 19th century.
Catterlen Corridor Tower home 140115th century Intact CatterlenHall cropped.jpg Personal Later additions.
Clifton Corridor Pele tower 150116th century Considerably intact Pele Tower, Clifton, Cumbria (geograph 1878296, cropped).jpg EHEH icon.svg Used as a farm constructing till 1973.
Cockermouth Fortress Enclosure fort 120113–14th century Partly restored Cockermouth Castle.jpg Personal residence 1919th century additions.
Corby Fortress Tower home 120113th century Rebuilt Corby Castle cropped.jpg Personal residence Hid inside a Georgian Mansion Home.
Dacre Fortress Tower home 130114th century Restored Dacre Castle.jpg Personal residence Restored 17th and 19th centuries.
Dalston Corridor Fortified home 140115th century Intact Lodge Later additions.
Dalton Fortress Pele tower 130114th century Restored Dalton Castle.jpg ENTNTE icon.svg Remodelled c.1704 and 1856.
Drawdykes Fortress Tower home 130114th century Intact Personal, farm Authentic tower with early Classical Revival facade.
Drumburgh Fortress Tower home 130114th century Liveable Drumburgh Castle - - 912711.jpg Personal Transformed into farmhouse.
Egremont Fortress Enclosure fort 110112–13th century Fragmentary stays Egremont Castle - - 1181540.jpg EHEH icon.svg
Gleaston Fortress Enclosure fort 130114th century Fragmentary stays North-Tower-from-NW.jpg Personal Deserted late 15th century.
Greystoke Fortress Fortress 130114–19th century Rebuilt Greystoke Castle.jpg Wedding ceremony venue Rebuilt incorporating components of 14th century constructing, remodelled 1840 by Salvin.
Harbybrow Tower Pele tower 140115th century Smash Personal Adjoining 19th century farmhouse.
Hayton Fortress Tower home 130114–15th century Considerably intact HaytonCastleGates.jpg Personal Fortress transformed to deal with.
Hazelslack Tower Pele tower 130114th century Ruins Hazelslack Tower - - 126519.jpg Personal Close to Arnside.
Howgill Fortress Tower home 130114th century Considerably intact Personal Altered and remodelled 17–18th century.
Hutton-in-the-Forest Pele tower 130114–19th century Intact Hutton-in-the-Forest 04.jpg HHHH icon.svg Massive country-house extensions.
Hutton John Pele tower 130114th century Intact Hutton John - - 563746.jpg HHHH icon.svg Later alterations and additions.
Ingmire Corridor Pele tower 150116–20th century Rebuilt Ingmire Hall - - 131608.jpg Personal residences Integrated in giant principally 19th century mansion.
Isel Corridor Tower home 130114–15th century Intact HHHH icon.svg Later additions.
Kendal Fortress Ringwork 110112–14th century Fragmentary stays Kendal Castle at sunset.jpg HALUKAL icon.svg
Kentmere Corridor Pele tower 130114th century Intact Kentmere hall.jpg Personal
Kirkandrews Tower Pele tower 150116th century Intact Kirkandrews Tower - - 1577812.jpg Personal
Kirkoswald Fortress Enclosure fort 120113–15th century Fragmentary stays Personal
Linstock Fortress Tower home 110112–13th century Considerably intact Personal Altered and remodelled 17–20th century.
Lowther Fortress Neo-romantic fort 18061806–14 Ruins Lowther Castle 01.jpg HHHH icon.svg Shell of 19th century fort by Sir Robert Smirke, on website of medieval corridor.
Middleton Corridor Fortified manor home 130114th century Liveable Middleton Hall.jpg Personal Altered and prolonged 15–19th centuries.
Millom Fortress Fortress 130114th century Ruins Millom Castle - - 285259.jpg HCCL icon.svg 150116–17th century farmhouse constructed into ruins.
Muncaster Fortress Tower home 120113–14th century Restored MuncasterCastle.jpg HHHH icon.svg Remodelled by Anthony Salvin, residence of Tom Idiot, 16th century jester.
Naworth Fortress Preserve and bailey 120113–16th century Restored Naworth Castle - - 1485110.jpg Wedding ceremony venue
Earl of Carlisle
Altered and restored 18th and 19th centuries.
Newbiggin Corridor Fortified home 140115–16th century Intact Part of Newbiggin Hall - - 290844.jpg Personal Remodelled by Salvin.
Pendragon Fortress Tower home 110112–14th century Fragmentary stays Pendragon Castle - - 927364.jpg HCCL icon.svg
Penrith Fortress Fortress 130114–15th century Fragmentary stays Penrith Castle 2.JPG EHEH icon.svg
Piel Fortress Fortress 130114–15th century Ruins Piel Castle.jpg EHEH icon.svg Also referred to as Fouldrey Fortress.
Prior’s Tower, Carlisle Pele tower 140115th century Intact Prior's Tower, Carlisle.jpg Church of England A part of the Deanery, alongside later buildings.
Rose Fortress Quadrangular Fortress 140115–16th century Restored Rose Castle, Raughton Head.jpg Church of England Transformed to personal home 17th century, residence of the Bishop of Carlisle till 2011.
Scaleby Fortress Tower home 120113–15th century Partly ruined Scaleby Castle, Cumbria - - 50853.jpg Personal Integrated with later home.
Sizergh Fortress Tower home 130114–16th century Restored Sizergh Castle - - 1290821.jpg ENTNTE icon.svg Altered 18–20th centuries.
Toppin Fortress Sham fort 1919th century Intact Toppin Castle Farm House (geograph 1841134, cropped).jpg Personal Imitation tower home.
Ubarrow Corridor Pele tower 1401Medieval Considerably intact Yewbarrow-hall-longsleddale.jpg Personal Alongside later constructing, decreased in peak.
Wharton Corridor Fortified manor home 130114–17th century Partly restored Wharton Hall - - 163881.jpg Personal
Whelp Fortress, Kirkby Thore Masonry fort Talked about 1199 No hint above floor Personal discipline Traces seen 1777
Whitehall, Mealsgate Tower home 130114–15th century Considerably intact Vacation lodging Alterations by Salvin.
Workington Corridor Tower home 130114–18th century Ruins Curwen Hall - - 571432.jpg Native authority Also referred to as Curwen Corridor.
Wray Fortress Neo-romantic fort 18401840–7 Intact WrayCastle SE.jpg ENTNTE icon.svg
Wraysholme Tower Tower home 140115th century Considerably intact Wraysholme Tower.jpg Personal, farm Used as barn and cow-house, adjoining 19th century home.
Yanwath Corridor Pele tower 140115th century Intact Yanwath Hall from Pokey Dub - - 936539.jpg Personal Adjoining later constructing.

Appleby Fortress from above

Appleby Fortress is within the city of Appleby-in-Westmorland, Cumbria overlooking the River Eden. It consists of a 12th-century fort maintain which is called Caesar’s tower, and a mansion home. These, along with their related buildings, are set in a courtyard surrounded by curtain partitions.
The fort was based by Ranulf le Meschin at the start of the 12th century. In about 1170 the sq. stone maintain was constructed. The fort was in Royal arms when the Scottish King, William the Lion, invaded the Eden Valley in 1174. The constable of the fort surrendered with out a combat.

In 1203 the fort was granted to Robert de Vieuxpont by King John. In 1269 it got here into the possession of Roger de Clifford and it remained within the possession of the Clifford household for practically 400 years. The higher components of Caesar’s tower had been altered within the 17th and 18th centuries.

The north wall of home and the west a part of north wing with the spherical tower date from the 13th century. The jap a part of the home was in-built 1454. The home was partly dismantled in 1648 and was restored by Woman Anne Clifford in 1651–53. The home was largely rebuilt in 1686 and the north-west wing was added in 1695. Within the 19th century it was once more restored and sash home windows had been inserted.

Caesar’s tower is in-built gray stone rubble and ashlar. It’s about 80 ft excessive and has 4 storeys. The primary home is in two wings that are at proper angles to one another. A semicircular spherical tower protrudes from the north wall of the north wing and a big sq. tower is on the south finish of the east wing. The gateway is in gray stone and battlemented, courting in all probability from the 17th century. Within the grounds of the fort is Woman Anne’s Bee-house, which was constructed by Woman Anne Clifford in the midst of the 17th century. It’s a sq., stone constructing in two storeys with a pyramid roof and a door on the decrease degree. The higher degree has a pointed arched window on every of three sides and a door on the fourth aspect.


There are 9 castles of be aware in Derbyshire.

Bolsover Fortress

Codnor Fortress

Elvaston Fortress

Haddon Corridor

Mackworth Fortress

Peveril Fortress

Pilsbury Fortress

Riber Fortress

Wingfield Manor


There are 18 castles of be aware in Devon.


There are ten castles of be aware in Dorset.

East Using of Yorkshire

There are 4 castles of be aware within the East Using of Yorkshire.

Identify Sort Date Situation Possession
/ Entry
Notes (Key)
Flamborough Fortress Fortified Manor Home 130114th century Fragmentary ruins Personal Constructing At Threat.
Paull Holme Tower Tower Home 140115th century Ruins Personal Initially a part of bigger home, roofless.
Skipsea Fortress Motte and Bailey 100111th century Earthworks EHEH icon.svg Effectively-preserved earthworks.
Wressle Fortress Quadrangular fort 13901390 Ruins Personal, farm Initially moated website, largely demolished 1650, south vary stays, inhabited till gutted by hearth in 1796.

Flamborough Fortress

Flamborough Fortress is a ruined a medieval fortified manor home. It’s situated in Flamborough a village within the East Using of Yorkshire on the distinguished coastal characteristic of Flamborough Head.

Paull Holme Tower

Paull Holme Tower is a late-medieval interval fortified tower. It’s a part of an oblong, moated enclosure close to the village of Paull courting from the start of the 15th century. The tower is three storeys excessive, every flooring having a single chamber, the entire protected by a portcullis. There was debate as to the aim of the location – partially the fortification resembles the extra northern pele towers, though alternatively the tower might have been constructed to provide luxurious lodging overlooking the River Humber that runs close by, just like some properties constructed close to King’s Lynn.

Skipsea Fortress

Skipsea Fortress is a Norman Motte and Bailey fort situated south of Bridlington. All that is still seen in the present day are the earthworks, having been destroyed by the order of Henry III. The fort was constructed round 1086, within the years following the Norman Conquest by Drogo de la Bouerer, the First Earl of Holderness, as a way to defend towards Viking raids.

Within the 13th century, William de Froz II, Lord of Holderness rebelled towards the king. Because of this, in 1221 William de Froz II was excommunicated and Skipsea Fortress was destroyed. Finally, William de Froz II reconciled with King Henry III in 1227. Skipsea Fortress was returned to William de Froz II, however with none defences.

Wressle Fortress

Wressle Fortress is a quadrangular fort situated in Wressle. The fort was constructed c.1380 – 1390 by Sir Thomas Percy. The fort was garrisoned by Parliament throughout the English Civil Struggle and was largely demolished by an act of Parliament in 1650 as a precaution towards future use in any additional battle. A hearth gutted the remaining south vary of the fort in 1796.

East Sussex

There are seven castles of be aware in East Sussex.


There are 5 castles of be aware in Essex.

Identify Sort Date Situation Possession
/ Entry
Notes (Key)
Colchester Fortress Tower maintain 100111th century Intact HMMuseum icon (red).png
Native authority
Decreased in peak in 17th century.
Hadleigh Fortress Fortress 120113–14th century Fragmentary stays EHEH icon.svg
Hedingham Fortress Tower maintain 1130–40 Considerably intact HHHH icon.png Fortress demolished 17th century aside from maintain, well-preserved inside regardless of hearth of 1954.
Pleshey Fortress Motte and bailey 110112th century Earthworks Personal
Walden Fortress Preserve and bailey 110112th century Fragmentary stays HCCL icon.svg Stays of maintain.

Colchester Fortress

Colchester Castle in Essex

Colchester Fortress’s maintain at 152 x 112 ft is the most important ever in-built Britain and the most important surviving instance in Europe. There has at all times been debate as to the unique peak of the fort. It has been steered that the maintain was at one time 4 storeys excessive, although for various causes, together with the peaceable area of the fort and the shortage of native stone, it’s now thought that it had solely two or three. The fort is constructed on the foundations (or the rostrum) of the sooner Roman temple of Claudius (constructed between AD 54–60). These foundations, with their huge vaults, have since been uncovered and may be considered in the present day on a fort tour.

The fort was ordered by William the Conqueror and designed by Gundulf, Bishop of Rochester. Constructing started between 1069 and 1076 below the supervision of Eudo Dapifer, who turned the fort’s steward on its completion. Constructing stopped in 1080 due to a risk of Viking invasion, however the fort was accomplished by round 1100. Many supplies, equivalent to Roman brick and clay taken from the Roman city, had been used within the constructing and these can simply be seen. Scaffolding pole holes and garderobes can nonetheless be seen within the construction.

Hadleigh Fortress

Hadleigh Castle.jpg

Fortress Hedingham

The Keep at Castle Hedingham - - 30510.jpg

Pleshey Fortress

Part of the Moat, Pleshey Castle - - 1245037.jpg

Walden Castlet

Walden castle.jpg


There are six castles of be aware in Gloucestershire.

Higher London

There’s one fort of be aware in Higher London.

Identify Sort Date Situation Possession
/ Entry
Notes (Key)
Tower of London Concentric fort 100111–13th century Intact Historic Royal Palaces White Tower begun c.1077, full by 1100, curtain partitions added 13th century, working portcullis.

Tower of London

The Tower of London standing upon Tower Hill in central London

The Tower of London, or extra correctly, Her Majesty’s Royal Palace and Fortress, stands on the north financial institution of the River Thames in central London. Development started in 1066 shortly after the Norman invasion. The fort’s frequent title comes from the White Tower which was in-built 1078 and was seen on the time as an emblem of oppression. As an entire, the Tower is a fancy of a number of buildings set inside two concentric rings of defensive partitions and a moat. There have been a number of phases of growth, primarily below Kings Richard the Lionheart, Henry III and Edward I within the 12th and 13th centuries. The overall format established by the late 13th century stays regardless of later exercise on the location.

The Tower of London was besieged a number of instances and controlling it has been vital to controlling the nation. By the point of the Tudors the Tower turned used much less as a royal residence, and regardless of makes an attempt to refortify and restore the fort its defences lagged behind developments to take care of artillery.

The Tower was oriented with its strongest and most spectacular defences overlooking London and visually dominating the encompassing space. The fort is made up of three wards or enclosures. The innermost ward incorporates the White Tower and is the earliest section of the fort. Encircling it to the north, east, and west is the inside ward, constructed throughout the reign of Richard the Lionheart. Lastly, there may be the outer ward which encompasses the fort and was constructed below Edward I. Though there have been a number of phases of growth after William the Conqueror based the Tower of London, the final format has remained the identical since Edward I accomplished his rebuild in 1285. The fort encloses an space of just about 12 acres with an extra six acres across the Tower of London constituting the Tower Liberties – land below the direct affect of the fort and cleared for navy causes.

Higher Manchester

There are two castles of be aware in Higher Manchester.

Identify Sort Date Situation Possession
/ Entry
Notes (Key)
Buckton Fortress Ringwork 110112th century Earthworks HALUKAL icon.svg Located on Buckton Moor, 335m above sea degree, hilltop.
Radcliffe Tower Tower home 14031403 Fragment HCCL icon.svg
Native authority

Buckton Fortress

A view of the surviving defensive ditch across the website of Buckton Fortress

Buckton Fortress is a medieval enclosure fort close to Carrbrook, Stalybridge. The fort is oval, with a 3m huge stone curtain wall surrounded by a 10m huge, 6m deep ditch. It’s unsure who constructed the fort, however it could have been constructed for the early of Chester within the 12th century; it was mendacity derelict by 1360 when it was first talked about in historic sources. The small variety of finds retrieved throughout archaeological investigation of the location signifies that Buckton Fortress might not have been accomplished.

The fort stands 335m above sea degree on Buckton Hill, a steep sandstone ridge. The fort’s positioning might have been to permit its garrison to protect the Tame Valley; each fort and valley had been within the medieval manor of Tintwistle.

This plan was drawn by George Ormerod in 1817; it exhibits the form of the fort, with orientation. He didn’t embrace any inside options.

The doorway to the ringwork is to the northwest of the location. On the south-facing aspect of the location are the stays of a stone curtain wall. The north-west entrance was protected by a stone gatehouse; the wall thickness suggests the tower was in all probability two storeys excessive.

The inside of the fort is artificially raised 1.5m above floor degree. Based on a 1360 survey of property in Longdendale, Buckton Fortress might have had a corridor and a chapel. Within the 18th century, antiquarian Thomas Percival recorded a effectively throughout the fort, and partitions of buildings contained in the fort nonetheless standing to a peak of 2m. Nevertheless, these options had been not apparent when Ormerod wrote in regards to the fort in 1817, and haven’t been found by archaeological excavations.

The fort is now overgrown with heather and peat, and there are not any above-ground ruins.

Radcliffe Tower

The tower within the early nineteenth century with the manor home on the correct previous to its demolition.

The standing stays of Radcliffe Tower

Radcliffe Tower is the one surviving a part of a manor home in Radcliffe, Higher Manchester. The home was rebuilt in 1403 by James de Radcliffe, who was lord of the manor of Radcliffe, and consisted of a stone-built corridor and one or two towers, in all probability constructed with ashlar blocks. De Radcliffe was given a royal licence to fortify the location together with including crenellations and battlements.

The manor home was demolished within the 19th century leaving solely the tower. The tower measures 10.5 yards by 19 yards and survives to about 20 toes in peak.


There are a variety of notable castles in Hampshire.



There are three castles of be aware in Hertfordshire.

Isles of Scilly

There are three castles on the Isles of Scilly.

Identify Sort Date Situation Possession
/ Entry
Notes (Key)
Cromwell’s Fortress Artillery tower 16511651 Considerably intact EHEH icon.svg
King Charles’s Fortress Artillery fort 15501550 Ruins EHEH icon.svg Ruined
Star Fortress Artillery fort 15931593 Intact Lodge Considerably intact

Cromwell’s Fortress

Cromwell’s Fortress is a coastal gun tower constructed by Oliver Cromwell on the island of Tresco. It was constructed in 1651 – 1652 as a alternative for King Charles’s Fortress. The weapons had been mounted on the roof above the garrison’s residing quarters and magazines. The tower was initially entered at first flooring degree by an exterior stair on the south aspect. The current entrance dates from the development of the decrease gun platform added within the 1740s by Abraham Tovey, Grasp Gunner.

King Charles’s Fortress

King Charles’s Fortress is a coastal artillery fort close to the northern extremity of the island of Tresco. It’s now in ruins. It was a semi-hexagonal gun tower designed to supply a large discipline of fireplace and two-storeyed to provide at the very least two tiers of weapons. The home quarters for the garrison had been on the rear.

Regardless of its title, the fort was constructed 1550-1554 throughout the reign of Edward VI. In the course of the English Civil Struggle low earthwork defences had been thrown up past the fort to guard it from landward assault. After the conflict it was changed by Cromwell’s Fortress.

Star Fortress

Star Fortress is a fortress on St Mary’s, Isles of Scilly, in-built 1593 by Francis Godolphin within the form of an eight-pointed star. Little altered it’s an nearly full instance of an Elizabethan fort.

Isle of Wight

There are 4 castles of be aware on the Isle of Wight.

Identify Sort Date Situation Possession
/ Entry
Carisbrooke Fortress Preserve and bailey 110112–14th century Considerably intact EHEH icon.svg Refortified in 1590s as artillery fortress, gatehouse restored 19th century, former seat of the Governor of the Isle of Wight.
Norris Fortress Neo-romantic fort 1801c.1800 Intact Personal Gothic Revival, by James Wyatt.
Yarmouth Fortress Artillery fort 15471547 Considerably intact EHEH icon.svg Altered 17th century.
West Cowes Fortress Artillery fort 150116–19th century Rebuilt Royal Yacht Squadron Fragments of 16th century construction included in later constructing.

Carisbrooke Fortress

The gatehouse of Carisbrooke Fortress

Carisbrooke Fortress is a historic motte-and-bailey fort situated within the village of Carisbrooke close to Newport. The location might have been occupied in pre-Roman instances. The existence of a ruined wall means that there was a constructing there in late Roman instances. The Jutes might have taken over the fort by the late seventh century. An Anglo-Saxon stronghold occupied the location throughout the eighth century. Round 1000, a wall was constructed across the hill as a defence towards Viking raids.

From 1100 The fort remained within the possession of Richard de Redvers’ household, and over the following 200 years his descendants improved the fort with stone partitions, towers and a maintain. This was till 1293, when Countess Isabella de Fortibus, the final Redvers resident bought it to Edward I, after which the federal government was entrusted to wardens as representatives of the crown. Within the reign of Richard II it was unsuccessfully attacked by the French. The maintain was added to the fort within the reign of Henry I, and within the reign of Elizabeth I; when the Spanish Armada was anticipated, it was surrounded by an elaborate pentagonal fortification by Sir George Carey.

A mannequin of Carisbooke Fortress because it appeared throughout the 14th century

Carisbrooke was the strongest fort on the Island; although it’s seen from far, it doesn’t dominate the countryside like many different castles.

There are traces of a Roman fort beneath the later buildings. Seventy-one steps lead as much as the maintain; the reward is a high quality view. Within the centre of the fort enclosure are the home buildings; these are principally of the 13th century, with higher components of the 16th century. Some are in ruins, however the primary rooms had been used because the official residence of the Governor of the Isle of Wight till the 1940s, they usually stay in good restore.

The Nice Corridor, Nice Chamber and a number of other smaller rooms are open to the general public, and an higher room homes the Isle of Wight Museum. Most rooms are partly furnished, however on the entire it’s the fireplaces and different options of the rooms themselves which generate essentially the most curiosity. The gateway tower was erected by Lord Scales who was lord of the fort on the time in 1464.

The chapel is situated subsequent to the primary gate. Inside the partitions is a effectively 200 toes deep and one other within the centre of the maintain is reputed to have been nonetheless deeper. Close to the home buildings is the well-house with a donkey wheel.

Surrounding the entire fort are giant earthworks, designed by the Italian Federigo Gianibelli, and begun within the 12 months earlier than the Spanish Armada. They had been completed within the 1590s. The outer gate has the date 1598 and the arms of Queen Elizabeth I.

Norris Fortress

Norris Fortress stands on the northeast level of East Cowes. The fort was designed by James Wyatt for Lord Henry Seymour. It has a galleted facade with crenellations, however all of that is for present because the fort has no defensive fortifications. The constructing’s authentic operate was entertaining. Regardless of its measurement, it has solely 4 bedrooms. The phantasm of measurement is created by the truth that a lot of the constructing is occupied by just one room.

Yarmouth Fortress

Yarmouth Fortress is a small off-square blockhouse constructed by Henry VIII in 1547, to protect Yarmouth harbour. It was constructed as a part of Henry’s programme to fortify the English coast with a sequence of coastal defences generally known as Gadget Forts or Henrician Castles. These had been constructed to protect towards the specter of international invasion. As it’s a later fortification it didn’t have the sooner rounded or concentric form however a sq. maintain with angular bastions.

West Cowes Fortress

The Isle of Wight was a goal of tried French invasions, and there have been notable incursions. Henrician Castles had been in-built each settlements within the sixteenth century. The west fort in Cowes nonetheless survives to this present day, albeit with out the unique Tudor towers, as West Cowes Fortress. The fort in-built East Cowes is believed to have been related however was deserted c1546 and since destroyed.



There are eight castles of be aware in Lancashire.




There are two castles of be aware in Merseyside.

Identify Sort Date Situation Possession
/ Entry
Notes (Key)
Brimstage Corridor Tower home 1398c.1398 Considerably intact Crafts centre Tower stays from previously moated fortified corridor, included in later constructing of 16th and 19th centuries.
Leasowe Fortress Sham fort 150116–19th century Intact Lodge Constructed 1593, prolonged 1600–42 and 19th century.

Brimstage Corridor

Brimstage Corridor is believed to have been constructed between the 12th century and 14th century. Initially the location was enclosed by a moat and excessive embankment. The constructing’s first identified occupants had been Sir Hugh Hulse and his spouse, who had been granted the correct to assemble a chapel in 1398.

Leasowe Fortress

Leasowe Fortress was constructed by Ferdinando Stanley, fifth Earl of Derby in 1593. Initially the fort consisted solely of an octagonal tower. This had turn out to be disused by 1700, and it turned generally known as “Mockbeggar Corridor”, a time period typically used for an ornate however derelict constructing. In 1821 possession handed to the Cust household, who refurbished and prolonged the constructing, utilizing panelling from the demolished Star Chamber on the Palace of Westminster in addition to oak from the submerged forest alongside the coast.


North Yorkshire

There are greater than 30 castles in North Yorkshire, reflecting its turbulent historical past.



Identify Sort Date Situation Picture Possession
/ Entry
Notes (Key)
Alnham Vicars Pele Pele tower 130114th century Restored The Vicars Pele, Alnham - - 1202709 cropped.jpg Personal
Alnwick Fortress Preserve and bailey 110112–14th century Restored Alnwick Castle 02.jpg HHHH icon.svg
Duke of Northumberland
Remodelled by Robert Adam and Anthony Salvin.
Aydon Fortress Fortified manor home 130114th century Intact Aydon Castle 2.jpg EHEH icon.svg Transformed to farmhouse 17th century.
Bamburgh Fortress Preserve and bailey 110112–14th century Restored Bamburgh 2006 closeup.jpg HHHH icon.svg
Lord Armstrong
Ruinous by 1704, extensively restored 1894–1904.
Barmoor Fortress Tower home 130114–19th century Rebuilt Barmoor Castle - - 779515.jpg Personal 1919th century mansion incorporating stays of 14th century constructing.
Beaufront Fortress Neo-romantic fort 18361836–1841 Intact Beaufront Castle - - 1463944.jpg Personal residence 1919th century mansion on website of 15th century tower home.
Bellister Fortress Fortress 120113–14th century Fragmentary stays Bellister Castle.jpg Personal Ruins adjoining 17th century home.
Belsay Fortress Tower home 14391439–60 Intact South frontage of Belsay Castle - - 1383674.jpg EHEH icon.svg Later ruined constructing connected.
Berwick Fortress Fortress 110112–13th century Fragmentary stays Berwick Castle - - 768511.jpg EHEH icon.svg
Bitchfield Fortress Pele tower 130114th century Restored Personal Integrated in later mansion.
Blenkinsop Fortress Tower home 130114th century Ruins Blenkinsopp - - 445936.jpg Personal Integrated in 19th century home.
Bothal Fortress Fortress 130114th century Rebuilt Bothal Castle.jpg Personal Extensively restored 19th century.
Bywell Fortress Fortress 140115th century Fragments Bywell Castle.jpg Personal Gatehouse survives.
Callaly Fortress Pele tower 130114–15th century Intact Sheep Pasture in the Grounds of Callaly Castle - - 149295 (cropped).jpg Personal residences Integrated in later nation home.
Cartington Fortress Pele tower and extensions 130114–15th century Fragmentary stays Personal
Chillingham Fortress Quadrangular fort 13441344 Intact Chillingham Castle 011.jpg HHHH icon.svg Altered 17–19th centuries, restored after 1982.
Chipchase Fortress Tower home 130114th century Intact Chipchase Castle - - 1255527.jpg HHHH icon.svg Integrated in Jacobean home, altered 18–19th centuries.
Cocklaw Tower Tower home 130114–15th century Shell Cocklaw Tower - - 1176584.jpg Personal, farm Close to Wall.
Cocklepark Tower Tower home 1517c.1517 Considerably intact Cockle Park - - 93673.jpg Newcastle College
Corbridge Vicar’s Pele Pele tower 13181318 Intact Corbridge Vicar's Pele 105.jpg HALUKAL icon.svg Re-roofed 1910.
Coupland Fortress Tower home 150116–17th century Restored Coupland Castle.jpg Personal residence Later additions.
Craster Tower Pele tower 130114–15th century Intact Vacation lodging Integrated in later constructing.
Crawley Tower Pele tower 130114th century Ruins Crawley Tower - - 330608.jpg Personal A cottage was constructed throughout the partitions within the 18th century.
Cresswell Fortress Pele tower 140115th century Smash Cresswell Tower - - 1163700.jpg 170118th century parapet.
Dilston Fortress Tower home 140115th century Ruins Dilston Castle.jpg HCCL icon.svg Altered 16–17th century, later buildings demolished.
Dunstanburgh Fortress Preserve and bailey 130114th century Fragmentary ruins Gatehouse and curtain wall of Dunstanburgh Castle, 2009.jpg EHEH icon.svg Spectacular coastal setting.
Edlingham Fortress Preserve and bailey 130114th century Fragmentary ruins Edlingham Castle - Northumberland - England - 2004-10-31.jpg EHEH icon.svg
Elsdon Fortress Motte and bailey 100111th century Earthworks Motte and Bailey Castle at Elsdon - - 1521227.jpg Personal Effectively-preserved earthworks.
Elsdon Tower Pele tower 150116th century Intact Elsdon Tower - - 374282 cropped.jpg Personal Altered, rectory till 1960, restored 1990s.
Embleton Tower Pele tower 130114th century Intact Embleton Tower (cropped).jpg Personal 1919th century vicarage connected.
Etal Fortress Fortress 130114th century Fragmentary ruins Etal Castle - - 1254407.jpg EHEH icon.svg
Featherstone Fortress Fortress 130114th century Intact Featherstone Castle.jpg Personal 130114th century tower, three additional towers added 18–19th century.
Ford Fortress Quadrangular fort 130114th century Considerably intact Ford Castle - - 354895.jpg Personal Transformed into mansion 17th century.
Haggerston Fortress Neo-romantic fort 1893c.1893 Fragment Haggerston Castle, April 2011.jpg Caravan website Surviving tower of c.1893, on website of 14th century fort, in what’s now a caravan park.
Halton Fortress Tower home 120113–14th century Intact Halton Castle, Northumberland 124.jpg Personal residence Hooked up to later home.
Harbottle Fortress Preserve and bailey 110112–14th century Fragmentary ruins Harbottle castle - - 583589.jpg HALUKAL icon.svg
Northumberland Nationwide Park
Captured by Robert Bruce in 1318.
Haughton Fortress Tower home 120113–14th centuries Restored Haughton Castle - - 1272590.jpg Personal Altered 18–19th centuries.
Hexham Moot Corridor and Previous Gaol Fortified towers 130114–15th century Intact The Moot Hall and the Old Gaol - - 530386.jpg HMMuseum icon (red).svg Most likely as soon as linked by bailey wall, AD1415 checklist of castles has ‘Turris de Hexham’.
Horsley Tower Pele tower 150116th century Intact Horsley Tower - - 626935.jpg Personal residence
Langley Fortress Tower home 1350c.1350 Restored Langley Castle.jpg Lodge Restored 1890s.
Lemmington Corridor Tower home 140115th century Restored Lemmington Hall - rear.jpg Wedding ceremony venue Integrated in later home.
Lindisfarne Fortress Artillery fort 150116th century Restored LindisfarneCastleHolyIsland.jpg ENTNTE icon.svg Remodelled by Edwin Lutyens 1901.
Mitford Fortress Preserve and bailey 100111–13th century Fragmentary ruins Mitford Castle.jpg HCCL icon.svg
Morpeth Fortress Fortress 13421342–9 Fragments Morpeth Castle Gatehouse.jpg Landmark Belief Solely gatehouse and a piece of wall stay.
Norham Fortress Preserve and bailey 110112th century Ruins Norham Castle.jpg EHEH icon.svg Preserve remodelled 1422–5, partly rebuilt 1513–15.
Preston Tower Pele tower 1401c.1400 Fragment Preston Tower - - 1192634.jpg HCCL icon.svg South wall stays, with two of the unique 4 turrets.
Prior Castell’s Tower Tower home 140115–16th century Considerably intact Pele Tower, Inner Farne Island - - 2010838.jpg ENTNTE icon.svg
Prudhoe Fortress Fortress 110112–14th century Ruins Prudhoe Castle 2.jpg EHEH icon.svg
Shilbottle Tower Pele tower 140115th century Restored File-St James' Church graveyard, Shilbottle, Northumberland - Geograph-2156100 cropped.jpg Personal Integrated right into a vicarage.
Shortflatt Tower Pele tower 130114–15th century Restored Gateway and private road to Shortflatt Tower - - 684189.jpg Wedding ceremony venue Integrated in later home.
Thirlwall Fortress Tower home 130114th century Fragmentary ruins Thirlwall Castle - - 127117.jpg HALUKAL icon.svg
Northumberland Nationwide Park
Constructed with stone from Hadrian’s Wall.
Twizell Fortress Tower home 140115–18th century Fragmentary ruins Twizel Castle - - 1202957.jpg HALUKAL icon.svg Medieval ruins included in 18th century folly.
Warkworth Fortress Preserve and bailey 110112–14th century Ruins Warkworth Castle interior, 2007.jpg EHEH icon.svg Though taken care of by English Heritage, partly owned by the Duke of Northumberland.
Whittingham Tower Pele tower 120113–14th century Restored Whittingham Tower - - 1332545.jpg Personal Transformed to be used as almshouses in 1845.
Whitton Tower Pele tower 1386c.1386 Intact Vacation lodging Close to Rothbury, well-preserved.
Willimoteswick Fortress Fortified manor home 150116th century Ruins Willimoteswick Bastle, Haltwhistle - - 124371.jpg Personal, farm Incorporates stays of earlier constructing, largely rebuilt 1900.

Twizell Fortress stands on a bend of the River Until at Tillmouth Park, Northumberland. Beneath it, the medieval Twizell bridge spans the river. The gardens of the fort comprise the earthwork stays of the as soon as misplaced medieval village of Twizell, while the large wreck presents the stays of an 18th century fort which was by no means accomplished.

A medieval tower home which as soon as stood on the location was, in 1415, held by Sir John Heron. This was destroyed by the Scots in 1496, and the property was bought by the Herons circa 1520 to a member of the Selby household. A survey in 1561 reported solely the remnants of a tower home and a barmkin. Of the medieval construction, blocked home windows, a chamfered doorway and the unique north-east angle quoins are all that is still seen now.

In 1685 Sir Francis Blake bought the property from the widow Selby for £1,944, plus an annuity of £100, and the Blake household lived on the property till 1738 once they moved to close by Tillmouth Corridor. From about 1770, he labored on the recreation of the fort as a Gothic Revival mansion, designed by architect James Nesbit of Kelso to be 5 ranges tall. Regardless of some forty years of labor, the venture was by no means accomplished. When in 1882, the Blake’s constructed a brand new mansion at Tillmouth Park a lot of the unfinished Twizell Fortress was demolished and the stone used within the new building. The home is now a two-story folly. Rectangular in plan, with round towers on the angles and two wings on the north aspect, the basement rooms in the primary block are stone and brick-vaulted as a precaution towards hearth.


There are 4 castles in Nottinghamshire.


There are seven castles in Oxfordshire.


There’s one fort in Rutland.

Identify Sort Date Situation Picture Possession
/ Entry
Notes (Key)
Oakham Fortress Motte and bailey 110112–13th century Fragment Oakham Castle.jpg HCCL icon.svg / Rutland County Council Aisled nice corridor constructed 1180–1190 survives, with some stays of curtain partitions, in all probability website of Saxon burh.


There are 16 castles in Shropshire.


There are 11 castles in Somerset.

South Yorkshire

There are two castles in South Yorkshire.

Identify Sort Date Situation Picture Possession
/ Entry
Notes (Key)
Conisbrough Fortress Preserve and bailey 110112th century Ruins Conisbrough Castle Doncaster winter time.jpg EHEH icon.svg Cylindrical maintain 95 ft excessive, fort ruinous by time of Civil Struggle and so escaped slighting.
Tickhill Fortress Motte and bailey 100111–14th century Fragmentary stays Tickhill Castle - - 297181 cropped.jpg Personal Ruined gatehouse and components of curtain partitions stay.


There are eight castles in Staffordshire.


There are seven castles in Suffolk.


There are two castles in Surrey.

Identify Sort Date Situation Possession
/ Entry
Notes (Key)
Farnham Fortress Preserve and bailey 110112th century Considerably intact EHEH icon.svg Authentic very tall maintain half buried, subsequently demolished and changed by shell maintain, half remodelled 17th century.
Guildford Fortress Preserve and bailey 110112–13th century Ruins HCCL icon.svg
Native authority
Tower maintain survives, roofless since c.17th century.

Farnham Fortress

Farnham Fortress was in-built 1138 by Henri de Blois, grandson of William the Conqueror,. The fort was to turn out to be the house of the Bishops of Winchester for over 800 years. The unique constructing was demolished by Henry II in 1155 after the Anarchy after which rebuilt within the late 12th and early 13th centuries. The fort was slighted once more after the Civil Struggle in 1648. Since then extra buildings have been constructed within the fort’s grounds, essentially the most spectacular being these constructed by Bishop George Morley within the 17th century.

The structure displays altering types by means of the ages, making it some of the vital historic buildings within the south of England. It’s a formidable stone motte and bailey fortress, which has been in steady occupation because the 12th century. The massive motte was shaped across the huge foundations of a Norman tower after which completely enclosed by a shell-keep, with buttress turrets and a shallow gatehouse. Hooked up to the motte is a triangular inside bailey, with a high quality vary of home buildings and a fifteenth century brick entrance tower. The formidable outer bailey curtain wall has sq. flanking towers, a 13th century gatehouse and a big ditch.

Guildford Fortress

Guildford Fortress in Surrey is assumed to have been constructed shortly after the Norman Conquest. There isn’t any file of it within the Domesday E book so building in all probability began after 1086.

First to be constructed on the Fortress would have been the motte round which was a ditch and a bailey protected by a wood palisade. If it adopted a typical Norman design the bailey would have been divided with a palisade and have been divided into an inside and outer bailey. The inside baily would have encompassed the motte on which a wood maintain would have been constructed as a look-out put up for the troopers stationed there.

Within the late 11th or early 12th century, a wall product of Bargate stone was constructed across the prime of the motte making a shell maintain, after which across the 1130s a maintain was added, once more product of Bargate stone bonded with onerous and sturdy mortar. The maintain might have been constructed over a part of the shell maintain an its foundations went right down to the chalk bedrock. The overall type was quadrangular, its exterior dimensions being 47ft by 45.5ft. The partitions are about 10ft thick on the base and taper in the direction of the highest.

The maintain’s entrance was situated on the primary flooring to help in defence. The bottom flooring was windowless. On the primary flooring there was a Nice Chamber, a chapel, and wardrobe with latrine. A second flooring was added shortly afterwards containing a two-seater latrine. The addition of the second flooring made the maintain over 70ft excessive. The roof of the constructing was product of lead and the inside partitions had been lined in plaster after which whitewashed.

Tyne and Put on

There are 5 castles in Tyne and Put on.


There are seven castles in Warwickshire.

West Sussex

There are 5 castles in West Sussex.

West Midlands

There’s one fort of be aware within the West Midlands.

Identify Sort Date Situation Possession
/ Entry
Notes (Key)
Dudley Fortress Preserve and bailey 120113–14th century Ruins HCCL icon.svg
Dudley Zoo
Slighted in 1647, then rebuilt and inhabited till destroyed by hearth in 1750, partly restored 19th century.

Dudley Fortress is a ruined fort within the city of Dudley. The fort stands on an outcrop of Wenlock Group limestone. Native legend states {that a} wood fort was constructed on the location within the eighth century by a Saxon lord known as Dud or Dado. Nevertheless this legend isn’t taken severely by historians, who often date the fort from quickly after the Norman Conquest of 1066. It’s thought one of many Conqueror’s followers, Ansculf de Picquigny, constructed the primary fort in 1070 and that his son, William Fitz-Ansculf, was in possession of the fort when it was recorded on the time of the Domesday E book of 1086. Among the earthworks from this fort, notably the ‘motte’, the huge mound on which the current fort maintain now sits, nonetheless stay.

After Fitz-Ansculf, the fort got here into the possession of the Paganel household, who constructed the primary stone fort on the location. This fort was robust sufficient to resist a siege in 1153 by the forces of King Stephen. Nevertheless, after Gervase Paganel joined a failed rise up towards King Henry II in 1173 the fort was demolished by order of the king. The Somery’s had been the following dynasty to personal the location and set about constructing the fort in stone beginning within the second half of the 13th century and persevering with on into the 14th. The maintain (the obvious a part of the fort when considered from the city) and the primary gate dates from this re-building. A chapel and nice corridor had been additionally constructed.

Beginning round 1540, a spread of recent buildings had been erected throughout the older fort partitions. The architect was William Sharington and the buildings are thus often known as Sharrington Vary.

The fort turned a Royalist stronghold throughout the English Civil Struggle, and was besieged twice earlier than its give up to Cromwell’s forces in 1646. The primary siege in 1644 was lifted after the Royalists despatched a reduction power which drove away the Parliamentarians. In 1646 Sir William Brereton commanded the Parliamentarians within the second siege towards the Royalists led by Colonel Leveson. The fort was surrendered on 13th Could 1646. Parliament subsequently ordered that the fort be partly demolished and the current ruined look of the maintain consequence from this determination.

A secure block was constructed on the location in some unspecified time in the future earlier than 1700. This was the ultimate constructing to be constructed within the fort. The majority of the remaining liveable components of the fort was destroyed by hearth in 1750.

West Yorkshire

There are 5 castles in West Yorkshire.


There are 5 castles in Wiltshire.


There are 4 castles of be aware in Worcestershire.

Identify Sort Date Situation Possession
/ Entry
Notes (Key)
Caldwall Fortress Fortified manor home 140115–16th century Fragment Personal residence Single surviving tower, in Kidderminster.
Hartlebury Fortress Fortified manor home 140115th century Rebuilt HMMuseum icon (red).png
Church of England
140115th century stays included in later buildings, residence of Bishop of Worcester till 2007, homes Worcestershire County Museum.
Holt Fortress Fortress 130114–19th century Intact Wedding ceremony venue Medieval tower included in later buildings.
Worcester Fortress Fortress 120113–14th century Fragment Church of England Edgar Tower, now entrance to Faculty Inexperienced, possible surviving gatehouse of the fort.

Caldwall Fortress

Caldwell Tower, Kidderminster (cropped).jpg

Caldwell Tower stands on a mound, and is a small, free-standing tower of possible 16th century origin. Sq. on plan, of excellent coursed rubble, it incorporates three tales beneath the parapet. That is carried on two programs of particular person corbels. The crenellations appear to have been renewed.

The door at floor flooring degree is within the west wall and admits to a vaulted basement, which doesn’t talk with the higher tales. The primary flooring, additionally vaulted, is reached through a contemporary forestair. The flooring above has been altered. The home windows are small, and there are indicators of built-up gun-loops within the walling. The material all through is in honest situation. This tower is assumed to have been a part of the courtyard-type Caldwell Fortress. Rubble, probably from demolished ancillary buildings has been famous on the website.

Ainslie’s map of 1775 signifies a ‘pigeon home’ or ‘doocot’ on the place of the tower, indicating a later use of this fort remnant. Some indications of the tower being a focus of the pleasure gardens, linked to a belvedere have been steered. The 1832 map of Renfrewshire by John Thomson exhibits the tower clearly and marks it as ‘Bacon H.’ suggesting that it was then in use as a pigsty or such-like.

Hartlebury Fortress

Hartlebury Castle - - 419175.jpg

Hartlebury Fortress was constructed within the mid-13th century as a fortified manor home on land given to the Bishop of Worcester by King Burgred of Mercia. From the early 13th century till 2007, Hartlebury Fortress was the residence of the bishop of Worcester.

Bishop Walter de Cantilupe, a supporter of Simon de Montfort, started to fortify the Fortress, which was embattled and completed by his successor, Godfrey Giffard, 1268. The gate-house was added within the reign of Henry VI by Bishop Carpenter.

In 1646 throughout the Civil Struggle Hartlebury Fortress was strongly fortified and held for King Charles I by Captain Sandys and Lord Windsor, with 120 foot troopers and 20 horse, and had provisions for twelve months. When summoned by Colonel Morgan for the Parliament, it surrendered in two days with out firing a shot. The Fortress was slighted and the Parliamentary Commissioners seized the Fortress and manor, and bought them to Thomas Westrowe for £3133 6s. 8d. On the Restoration they got again to the Bishop of Worcester.

Holt Fortress

Holt castle 850843 62546082.jpg

Work started on Holt Fortress within the 13th century throughout the Welsh Wars. The fort was sited on the Welsh-English border by the banks of the River Dee.

Within the medieval interval, the five-towered fortress was really generally known as Castrum Leonis or Fortress Lyons as a result of it had a Lion motif carved into the stonework above its predominant gate. Within the 17th century, nearly all of the stonework was faraway from the location; solely the bottom of the sandstone basis stay.

The fort was constructed from native sandstone on prime of a 12m excessive promontory. It was formed like a pentagon with towers at every nook. The fort had a stepped ramp as much as a predominant gateway, barbican, inside ward, postern and curtain partitions. There was additionally a water-filled moat that was fed from the River Dee. The design of the fort featured towers that had been constructed towards the face of the rock outdoors the curtain wall, just like the inside wards at Ruthin Fortress and at Conwy Fortress.

Holt fort was began by Edward I on a sandstone base subsequent to the River Dee quickly after the invasion of North Wales in 1277. In 1282 Edward I introduced the Welsh lands wherein Holt was located to loyal lord John de Warrene, who was additionally given the duty of finishing the fort. By 1311 the fort had been completed and a deliberate city laid out subsequent to it for the use by English settlers.

A century later, Welsh forces burned down the city in 1400 throughout the rebellion of Owain Glyndŵr; though the fort was not taken. By the 16th century Holt Fortress had fallen disuse and wreck.

In 1643, throughout the English Civil Struggle Holt was garrisoned by Royalists troops. Three years later, after holding out for a 12 months throughout a second siege, Holt turned the final fort to be captured by Parliamentarian forces in north-east Wales. Holt Fortress was slighted in 1650 to cease it getting used as a fortification by any royalist supporters.

Worcester Fortress

The Edgar Tower, Worcester - - 503034.jpg

Worcester Fortress was a Norman fortification constructed between 1068 and 1069 in Worcester, England by Urse d’Abetot on behalf of William the Conqueror. The fort had a motte-and-bailey design and was situated on the south aspect of the previous Anglo-Saxon metropolis, chopping into the grounds of Worcester Cathedral. Royal castles had been owned by the king and maintained on his behalf by an appointed constable. At Worcester that function was handed down by means of the native Beauchamp household on a hereditary foundation, giving them everlasting management of the fort and appreciable energy throughout the metropolis. The fort performed an vital half within the wars of the 12th and early 13th century, together with the Anarchy and the First Barons’ Struggle.

In 1217, Henry III’s authorities determined to interrupt the ability of the Beauchamps and cut back the continued navy risk posed by the fort by returning a lot of the fort’s bailey to the cathedral. With out an intact bailey the fort was not helpful militarily, though it performed a small half within the Second Barons’ Struggle within the 1260s. A gaol had been constructed within the fort by the early 13th century and the fort continued for use as Worcestershire’s county gaol till the 19th century, when a brand new jail was constructed on the north aspect of Worcester and the previous website utterly redeveloped. At present nothing stays of Worcester Fortress except for Edgar’s Tower, a cathedral gatehouse constructed on the previous entrance to the fort.

This chapter exhibits the time line of chateau design towards historic occasions.

Castles of England/Later History of Castles Castles of England/Tudor Castles Castles of England/Baronial War Castles Castles of England/Civil War Castles Castles of England/Norman Castles


Arrow loop
A vertical slit for a bowman to fireside by means of. Generally the loop could be extra within the form of a cross to be used by crossbows.
The realm enclosed by the outer wall of the fort.
A siege engine. It was within the form of a large crossbow, often firing iron bolts.
A construction constructed across the gateway to extend its defences.
A sloped part on the backside of a wall.
The parapet alongside the highest of a wall with spaced openings.
A wood platform projecting from the highest of a wall. Typically short-term, it allowed defenders to drop objects on attackers near the wall.
Derived from “butt”. A spot the place casks of varied drinks had been saved. The butler was accountable for the buttery.
The officer answerable for the fort.
The principal room or suite put aside for using the fort proprietor.
The officer answerable for the chamber, the place the treasure of the fort was saved.
The officer commanding the fort when the Lord or grasp of the fort was absent.
Counter mine (or countermine)
A mine sunk by defenders to attempt to intercept a mine being dug by the attackers. A notable instance nonetheless exists at St. Andrew’s Fortress in Fife, Scotland.
One other title for battlement.


One other title for the maintain or nice tower
A bridge that may be raised to cowl the gateway.
A spot within the fort for maintain prisoners – not essentially underground. It was typically within the maintain. The title derives from donjon, one other title for the maintain.
Feudal system
A system of presidency the place the proprietor of land (often in the end the monarch) “leases” the land to a vassal in return for service, often navy.
An constructing designed to guard the doorway to the maintain.


The medieval title for bathroom.
Nice tower
One other title for maintain or donjon
Gun loop
A gap within the wall, just like an arrow loop, that allowed weapons to be fired whereas offering some safety to the firer.
The primary room in a fort. Used for consuming, sleeping and conducting the enterprise of the fort.
One other title for brattice.


A big, often rectangular, tower. It was the strongest level of the fort and contained the nice corridor and the proprietor’s residing quarters.


A siege engine. It had a cup at one finish that was stuffed with stones. The arm was held below pressure – when launched it could sling the contents of the cup upwards and forwards.
A ditch across the partitions of the fort. Generally, however not at all times, stuffed with water.
A mound of earth on which the fort tower stood.
Homicide gap
A gap within the ceiling. May have been used both for partaking attackers within the passage beneath or for tipping water onto fires began in entrance of the fort gates and doorways.


A steel gate within the type of a grid. It could possibly be dropped throughout a passageway or subsequent to a door to guard it from assault.
A small gate on the again or aspect of a fort. Used as a again entrance or to flee the fort.
Putlog holes
Small holes that had been meant to carry one finish of a log or sq. cross-section wood beam within the fort wall. These had been used both to assist short-term scaffolding throughout building or hoardings.


Siege tower
A platform supported by a tower, pushed up towards the wall of a fort to permit attackers to climb over the partitions.
To deliberate destroy components of a fort.
An armoured shelter to guard attackers whereas working on the base of a fort wall.
The official accountable for working the fort property.
A siege engine. Comparable however extra highly effective than the mangonel.
A way of bringing down the partitions of a fort. A tunnel could be dug beneath the wall, propped with timber, then set alight to break down the wall into the tunnel.


One other title for bailey

This chapter supplies an inventory of references, additional studying in addition to hyperlinks to helpful further sources.


Additional Studying

  • Blair, J. (1998). Anglo-Saxon Oxfordshire. London: Sutton. ISBN 978-0750917506. 
  • Brown, R.Allen (1962). English Castles. London: Batsford. ISBN 978-0907486060. 
  • Brown, R.Allen (2004). Allen Brown’s English Castles (third ed.). Woodbridge, UK: Boydell Press. ISBN 978-1843830696. 
  • Creighton, Oliver (2002). Castles and Landscapes. London: Continuum. ISBN 978-0826458964. 
  • Elton, G.R. (1991). England Beneath the Tudors. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0415065337. 
  • Emery, A. (2006). Higher Medieval Homes of England and Wales, 1300–1500: Southern England. Cambridge: Cambridge College Press. ISBN 978-0521581325. 
  • Harrington, P. (2007). The Castles of Henry VIII. Oxford: Osprey. ISBN 978-1846031304. 
  • Higham, Robert; Barker, Philip (1992). Timber Castles. London: Batsford. ISBN 978-0713421897. 
  • Impey, Edward; Parnell, Geoffrey (2000). The Tower of London: The Official Illustrated Historical past. Merrell Publishers in affiliation with Historic Royal Palaces. ISBN 978-1858941066. 
  • King, D.J.Cathcart (1983). Castellarium Anglicanum: An Index and Bibliography of the Castles in England, Wales and the Islands. London: Kraus Worldwide Publications. ISBN 978-0527501105. 
  • King, D.J.Cathcart (1988). The Fortress in England and Wales: An Interpretative Historical past. London: Croom Helm. ISBN 978-0918400086. 
  • Liddiard, Robert, ed (2003). Anglo-Norman Castles. Woodbridge, UK: Boydell Press. ISBN 978-0851159041. 
  • Renn, Derek (1984). “Assessment: Castellarium Anglicanum by D. J. Cathcart King”. Medieval Archaeology 28: 277–278. 
  • Thompson, Michael (1987). The Decline of the Fortress. Cambridge: Cambridge College Press. ISBN 978-0521321945. 

Most of the castles mentioned on this e book are owned or managed by English Heritage. Its web site supplies a quick overview of the castles and data on visiting:

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  9. Protect the part Entitled “Historical past”, Protect its Title, and add to it an merchandise stating at the very least the title, 12 months, new authors, and writer of the Modified Model as given on the Title Web page. If there isn’t any part Entitled “Historical past” within the Doc, create one stating the title, 12 months, authors, and writer of the Doc as given on its Title Web page, then add an merchandise describing the Modified Model as acknowledged within the earlier sentence.
  10. Protect the community location, if any, given within the Doc for public entry to a Clear copy of the Doc, and likewise the community places given within the Doc for earlier variations it was primarily based on. These could also be positioned within the “Historical past” part. Chances are you’ll omit a community location for a piece that was revealed at the very least 4 years earlier than the Doc itself, or if the unique writer of the model it refers to provides permission.
  11. For any part Entitled “Acknowledgements” or “Dedications”, Protect the Title of the part, and protect within the part all of the substance and tone of every of the contributor acknowledgements and/or dedications given therein.
  12. Protect all of the Invariant Sections of the Doc, unaltered of their textual content and of their titles. Part numbers or the equal aren’t thought of a part of the part titles.
  13. Delete any part Entitled “Endorsements”. Such a piece might not be included within the Modified model.
  14. Don’t retitle any current part to be Entitled “Endorsements” or to battle in title with any Invariant Part.
  15. Protect any Guarantee Disclaimers.

If the Modified Model contains new front-matter sections or appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and comprise no materials copied from the Doc, you might at your possibility designate some or all of those sections as invariant. To do that, add their titles to the checklist of Invariant Sections within the Modified Model’s license discover. These titles should be distinct from every other part titles.

Chances are you’ll add a piece Entitled “Endorsements”, offered it incorporates nothing however endorsements of your Modified Model by numerous events—for instance, statements of peer assessment or that the textual content has been accredited by a corporation because the authoritative definition of a regular.

Chances are you’ll add a passage of as much as 5 phrases as a Entrance-Cowl Textual content, and a passage of as much as 25 phrases as a Again-Cowl Textual content, to the tip of the checklist of Cowl Texts within the Modified Model. Just one passage of Entrance-Cowl Textual content and one in all Again-Cowl Textual content could also be added by (or by means of preparations made by) anyone entity. If the Doc already features a cowl textual content for a similar cowl, beforehand added by you or by association made by the identical entity you might be appearing on behalf of, you might not add one other; however you might exchange the previous one, on express permission from the earlier writer that added the previous one.

The writer(s) and writer(s) of the Doc don’t by this License give permission to make use of their names for publicity for or to claim or indicate endorsement of any Modified Model.


Chances are you’ll mix the Doc with different paperwork launched below this License, below the phrases outlined in part Four above for modified variations, offered that you just embrace within the mixture all the Invariant Sections of all the authentic paperwork, unmodified, and checklist all of them as Invariant Sections of your mixed work in its license discover, and that you just protect all their Guarantee Disclaimers.

The mixed work want solely comprise one copy of this License, and a number of equivalent Invariant Sections could also be changed with a single copy. If there are a number of Invariant Sections with the identical title however completely different contents, make the title of every such part distinctive by including on the finish of it, in parentheses, the title of the unique writer or writer of that part if identified, or else a novel quantity. Make the identical adjustment to the part titles within the checklist of Invariant Sections within the license discover of the mixed work.

Within the mixture, you should mix any sections Entitled “Historical past” within the numerous authentic paperwork, forming one part Entitled “Historical past”; likewise mix any sections Entitled “Acknowledgements”, and any sections Entitled “Dedications”. You should delete all sections Entitled “Endorsements”.


Chances are you’ll make a group consisting of the Doc and different paperwork launched below this License, and exchange the person copies of this License within the numerous paperwork with a single copy that’s included within the assortment, offered that you just comply with the principles of this License for verbatim copying of every of the paperwork in all different respects.

Chances are you’ll extract a single doc from such a group, and distribute it individually below this License, offered you insert a replica of this License into the extracted doc, and comply with this License in all different respects relating to verbatim copying of that doc.


A compilation of the Doc or its derivatives with different separate and unbiased paperwork or works, in or on a quantity of a storage or distribution medium, is known as an “combination” if the copyright ensuing from the compilation isn’t used to restrict the authorized rights of the compilation’s customers past what the person works allow. When the Doc is included in an combination, this License doesn’t apply to the opposite works within the combination which aren’t themselves by-product works of the Doc.

If the Cowl Textual content requirement of part Three is relevant to those copies of the Doc, then if the Doc is lower than one half of all the combination, the Doc’s Cowl Texts could also be positioned on covers that bracket the Doc throughout the combination, or the digital equal of covers if the Doc is in digital type. In any other case they need to seem on printed covers that bracket the entire combination.


Translation is taken into account a type of modification, so you might distribute translations of the Doc below the phrases of part 4. Changing Invariant Sections with translations requires particular permission from their copyright holders, however you might embrace translations of some or all Invariant Sections along with the unique variations of those Invariant Sections. Chances are you’ll embrace a translation of this License, and all of the license notices within the Doc, and any Guarantee Disclaimers, offered that you just additionally embrace the unique English model of this License and the unique variations of these notices and disclaimers. In case of a disagreement between the interpretation and the unique model of this License or a discover or disclaimer, the unique model will prevail.

If a piece within the Doc is Entitled “Acknowledgements”, “Dedications”, or “Historical past”, the requirement (part 4) to Protect its Title (part 1) will usually require altering the precise title.


Chances are you’ll not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Doc besides as expressly offered below this License. Any try in any other case to repeat, modify, sublicense, or distribute it’s void, and can routinely terminate your rights below this License.

Nevertheless, in case you stop all violation of this License, then your license from a specific copyright holder is reinstated (a) provisionally, until and till the copyright holder explicitly and at last terminates your license, and (b) completely, if the copyright holder fails to inform you of the violation by some affordable means previous to 60 days after the cessation.

Furthermore, your license from a specific copyright holder is reinstated completely if the copyright holder notifies you of the violation by some affordable means, that is the primary time you’ve gotten obtained discover of violation of this License (for any work) from that copyright holder, and also you remedy the violation previous to 30 days after your receipt of the discover.

Termination of your rights below this part doesn’t terminate the licenses of events who’ve obtained copies or rights from you below this License. In case your rights have been terminated and never completely reinstated, receipt of a replica of some or all the similar materials doesn’t offer you any rights to make use of it.


The Free Software program Basis might publish new, revised variations of the GNU Free Documentation License on occasion. Such new variations will likely be related in spirit to the current model, however might differ intimately to handle new issues or considerations. See

Every model of the License is given a distinguishing model quantity. If the Doc specifies {that a} specific numbered model of this License “or any later model” applies to it, you’ve gotten the choice of following the phrases and circumstances both of that specified model or of any later model that has been revealed (not as a draft) by the Free Software program Basis. If the Doc doesn’t specify a model variety of this License, you might select any model ever revealed (not as a draft) by the Free Software program Basis. If the Doc specifies {that a} proxy can resolve which future variations of this License can be utilized, that proxy’s public assertion of acceptance of a model completely authorizes you to decide on that model for the Doc.


“Large Multiauthor Collaboration Web site” (or “MMC Web site”) means any World Extensive Net server that publishes copyrightable works and in addition supplies distinguished services for anyone to edit these works. A public wiki that anyone can edit is an instance of such a server. A “Large Multiauthor Collaboration” (or “MMC”) contained within the website means any set of copyrightable works thus revealed on the MMC website.

“CC-BY-SA” means the Inventive Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.Zero license revealed by Inventive Commons Company, a not-for-profit company with a principal place of job in San Francisco, California, in addition to future copyleft variations of that license revealed by that very same group.

“Incorporate” means to publish or republish a Doc, in complete or partially, as a part of one other Doc.

An MMC is “eligible for relicensing” whether it is licensed below this License, and if all works that had been first revealed below this License someplace apart from this MMC, and subsequently included in complete or partially into the MMC, (1) had no cowl texts or invariant sections, and (2) had been thus included previous to November 1, 2008.

The operator of an MMC Web site might republish an MMC contained within the website below CC-BY-SA on the identical website at any time earlier than August 1, 2009, offered the MMC is eligible for relicensing.

To make use of this License in a doc you’ve gotten written, embrace a replica of the License within the doc and put the next copyright and license notices simply after the title web page:

Copyright (c) YEAR YOUR NAME.
Permission is granted to repeat, distribute and/or modify this doc
below the phrases of the GNU Free Documentation License, Model 1.3
or any later model revealed by the Free Software program Basis;
with no Invariant Sections, no Entrance-Cowl Texts, and no Again-Cowl Texts.
A duplicate of the license is included within the part entitled “GNU
Free Documentation License”.

You probably have Invariant Sections, Entrance-Cowl Texts and Again-Cowl Texts, exchange the “with…Texts.” line with this:

with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES, with the
Entrance-Cowl Texts being LIST, and with the Again-Cowl Texts being LIST.

You probably have Invariant Sections with out Cowl Texts, or another mixture of the three, merge these two alternate options to go well with the state of affairs.

In case your doc incorporates nontrivial examples of program code, we advocate releasing these examples in parallel below your alternative of free software program license, such because the GNU Common Public License, to allow their use in free software program.



1. Definitions

  1. Adaptation” means a piece primarily based upon the Work, or upon the Work and different pre-existing works, equivalent to a translation, adaptation, by-product work, association of music or different alterations of a literary or creative work, or phonogram or efficiency and contains cinematographic diversifications or every other type wherein the Work could also be recast, reworked, or tailored together with in any type recognizably derived from the unique, besides {that a} work that constitutes a Assortment won’t be thought of an Adaptation for the aim of this License. For the avoidance of doubt, the place the Work is a musical work, efficiency or phonogram, the synchronization of the Work in timed-relation with a shifting picture (“synching”) will likely be thought of an Adaptation for the aim of this License.
  2. Assortment” means a group of literary or creative works, equivalent to encyclopedias and anthologies, or performances, phonograms or broadcasts, or different works or material apart from works listed in Part 1(f) beneath, which, by motive of the choice and association of their contents, represent mental creations, wherein the Work is included in its entirety in unmodified type together with a number of different contributions, every constituting separate and unbiased works in themselves, which collectively are assembled right into a collective complete. A piece that constitutes a Assortment won’t be thought of an Adaptation (as outlined beneath) for the needs of this License.
  3. Inventive Commons Appropriate License” means a license that’s listed at that has been accredited by Inventive Commons as being basically equal to this License, together with, at a minimal, as a result of that license: (i) incorporates phrases which have the identical objective, that means and impact because the License Components of this License; and, (ii) explicitly permits the relicensing of diversifications of works made accessible below that license below this License or a Inventive Commons jurisdiction license with the identical License Components as this License.
  4. Distribute” means to make accessible to the general public the unique and copies of the Work or Adaptation, as acceptable, by means of sale or different switch of possession.
  5. License Components” means the next high-level license attributes as chosen by Licensor and indicated within the title of this License: Attribution, ShareAlike.
  6. Licensor” means the person, people, entity or entities that provide(s) the Work below the phrases of this License.
  7. Authentic Writer” means, within the case of a literary or creative work, the person, people, entity or entities who created the Work or if no particular person or entity may be recognized, the writer; and as well as (i) within the case of a efficiency the actors, singers, musicians, dancers, and different individuals who act, sing, ship, declaim, play in, interpret or in any other case carry out literary or creative works or expressions of folklore; (ii) within the case of a phonogram the producer being the particular person or authorized entity who first fixes the sounds of a efficiency or different sounds; and, (iii) within the case of broadcasts, the group that transmits the published.
  8. Work” means the literary and/or creative work supplied below the phrases of this License together with with out limitation any manufacturing within the literary, scientific and creative area, no matter will be the mode or type of its expression together with digital type, equivalent to a e book, pamphlet and different writing; a lecture, deal with, sermon or different work of the identical nature; a dramatic or dramatico-musical work; a choreographic work or leisure in dumb present; a musical composition with or with out phrases; a cinematographic work to that are assimilated works expressed by a course of analogous to cinematography; a piece of drawing, portray, structure, sculpture, engraving or lithography; a photographic work to that are assimilated works expressed by a course of analogous to pictures; a piece of utilized artwork; an illustration, map, plan, sketch or three-dimensional work relative to geography, topography, structure or science; a efficiency; a broadcast; a phonogram; a compilation of knowledge to the extent it’s protected as a copyrightable work; or a piece carried out by a spread or circus performer to the extent it’s not in any other case thought of a literary or creative work.
  9. You” means a person or entity exercising rights below this License who has not beforehand violated the phrases of this License with respect to the Work, or who has obtained specific permission from the Licensor to train rights below this License regardless of a earlier violation.
  10. Publicly Carry out” means to carry out public recitations of the Work and to speak to the general public these public recitations, by any means or course of, together with by wire or wi-fi means or public digital performances; to make accessible to the general public Works in such a approach that members of the general public might entry these Works from a spot and at a spot individually chosen by them; to carry out the Work to the general public by any means or course of and the communication to the general public of the performances of the Work, together with by public digital efficiency; to broadcast and rebroadcast the Work by any means together with indicators, sounds or photos.
  11. Reproduce” means to make copies of the Work by any means together with with out limitation by sound or visible recordings and the correct of fixation and reproducing fixations of the Work, together with storage of a protected efficiency or phonogram in digital type or different digital medium.

2. Honest Dealing Rights

Nothing on this License is meant to cut back, restrict, or limit any makes use of free from copyright or rights arising from limitations or exceptions which might be offered for in reference to the copyright safety below copyright regulation or different relevant legal guidelines.

3. License Grant

Topic to the phrases and circumstances of this License, Licensor hereby grants You a worldwide, royalty-free, non-exclusive, perpetual (in the course of the relevant copyright) license to train the rights within the Work as acknowledged beneath:

  1. to Reproduce the Work, to include the Work into a number of Collections, and to Reproduce the Work as included within the Collections;
  2. to create and Reproduce Variations offered that any such Adaptation, together with any translation in any medium, takes affordable steps to obviously label, demarcate or in any other case determine that adjustments had been made to the unique Work. For instance, a translation could possibly be marked “The unique work was translated from English to Spanish,” or a modification might point out “The unique work has been modified.”;
  3. to Distribute and Publicly Carry out the Work together with as included in Collections; and,
  4. to Distribute and Publicly Carry out Variations.
  5. For the avoidance of doubt:
    1. Non-waivable Obligatory License Schemes. In these jurisdictions wherein the correct to gather royalties by means of any statutory or obligatory licensing scheme can’t be waived, the Licensor reserves the unique proper to gather such royalties for any train by You of the rights granted below this License;
    2. Waivable Obligatory License Schemes. In these jurisdictions wherein the correct to gather royalties by means of any statutory or obligatory licensing scheme may be waived, the Licensor waives the unique proper to gather such royalties for any train by You of the rights granted below this License; and,
    3. Voluntary License Schemes. The Licensor waives the correct to gather royalties, whether or not individually or, within the occasion that the Licensor is a member of a accumulating society that administers voluntary licensing schemes, through that society, from any train by You of the rights granted below this License.

The above rights could also be exercised in all media and codecs whether or not now identified or hereafter devised. The above rights embrace the correct to make such modifications as are technically essential to train the rights in different media and codecs. Topic to Part 8(f), all rights not expressly granted by Licensor are hereby reserved.

4. Restrictions

The license granted in Part Three above is expressly made topic to and restricted by the next restrictions:

  1. Chances are you’ll Distribute or Publicly Carry out the Work solely below the phrases of this License. You should embrace a replica of, or the Uniform Useful resource Identifier (URI) for, this License with each copy of the Work You Distribute or Publicly Carry out. Chances are you’ll not provide or impose any phrases on the Work that limit the phrases of this License or the flexibility of the recipient of the Work to train the rights granted to that recipient below the phrases of the License. Chances are you’ll not sublicense the Work. You should maintain intact all notices that confer with this License and to the disclaimer of warranties with each copy of the Work You Distribute or Publicly Carry out. When You Distribute or Publicly Carry out the Work, Chances are you’ll not impose any efficient technological measures on the Work that limit the flexibility of a recipient of the Work from You to train the rights granted to that recipient below the phrases of the License. This Part 4(a) applies to the Work as included in a Assortment, however this doesn’t require the Assortment other than the Work itself to be made topic to the phrases of this License. If You create a Assortment, upon discover from any Licensor You should, to the extent practicable, take away from the Assortment any credit score as required by Part 4(c), as requested. If You create an Adaptation, upon discover from any Licensor You should, to the extent practicable, take away from the Adaptation any credit score as required by Part 4(c), as requested.
  2. Chances are you’ll Distribute or Publicly Carry out an Adaptation solely below the phrases of: (i) this License; (ii) a later model of this License with the identical License Components as this License; (iii) a Inventive Commons jurisdiction license (both this or a later license model) that incorporates the identical License Components as this License (e.g., Attribution-ShareAlike 3.Zero US)); (iv) a Inventive Commons Appropriate License. In the event you license the Adaptation below one of many licenses talked about in (iv), you should adjust to the phrases of that license. In the event you license the Adaptation below the phrases of any of the licenses talked about in (i), (ii) or (iii) (the “Relevant License”), you should adjust to the phrases of the Relevant License usually and the next provisions: (I) You should embrace a replica of, or the URI for, the Relevant License with each copy of every Adaptation You Distribute or Publicly Carry out; (II) Chances are you’ll not provide or impose any phrases on the Adaptation that limit the phrases of the Relevant License or the flexibility of the recipient of the Adaptation to train the rights granted to that recipient below the phrases of the Relevant License; (III) You should maintain intact all notices that confer with the Relevant License and to the disclaimer of warranties with each copy of the Work as included within the Adaptation You Distribute or Publicly Carry out; (IV) when You Distribute or Publicly Carry out the Adaptation, Chances are you’ll not impose any efficient technological measures on the Adaptation that limit the flexibility of a recipient of the Adaptation from You to train the rights granted to that recipient below the phrases of the Relevant License. This Part 4(b) applies to the Adaptation as included in a Assortment, however this doesn’t require the Assortment other than the Adaptation itself to be made topic to the phrases of the Relevant License.
  3. If You Distribute, or Publicly Carry out the Work or any Variations or Collections, You should, until a request has been made pursuant to Part 4(a), maintain intact all copyright notices for the Work and supply, affordable to the medium or means You might be using: (i) the title of the Authentic Writer (or pseudonym, if relevant) if equipped, and/or if the Authentic Writer and/or Licensor designate one other occasion or events (e.g., a sponsor institute, publishing entity, journal) for attribution (“Attribution Events”) in Licensor’s copyright discover, phrases of service or by different affordable means, the title of such occasion or events; (ii) the title of the Work if equipped; (iii) to the extent fairly practicable, the URI, if any, that Licensor specifies to be related to the Work, until such URI doesn’t confer with the copyright discover or licensing data for the Work; and (iv) , in line with Part 3(b), within the case of an Adaptation, a credit score figuring out using the Work within the Adaptation (e.g., “French translation of the Work by Authentic Writer,” or “Screenplay primarily based on authentic Work by Authentic Writer”). The credit score required by this Part 4(c) could also be applied in any affordable method; offered, nevertheless, that within the case of a Adaptation or Assortment, at a minimal such credit score will seem, if a credit score for all contributing authors of the Adaptation or Assortment seems, then as a part of these credit and in a fashion at the very least as distinguished because the credit for the opposite contributing authors. For the avoidance of doubt, Chances are you’ll solely use the credit score required by this Part for the aim of attribution within the method set out above and, by exercising Your rights below this License, Chances are you’ll not implicitly or explicitly assert or indicate any reference to, sponsorship or endorsement by the Authentic Writer, Licensor and/or Attribution Events, as acceptable, of You or Your use of the Work, with out the separate, specific prior written permission of the Authentic Writer, Licensor and/or Attribution Events.
  4. Besides as in any other case agreed in writing by the Licensor or as could also be in any other case permitted by relevant regulation, if You Reproduce, Distribute or Publicly Carry out the Work both by itself or as a part of any Variations or Collections, You should not distort, mutilate, modify or take different derogatory motion in relation to the Work which might be prejudicial to the Authentic Writer’s honor or repute. Licensor agrees that in these jurisdictions (e.g. Japan), wherein any train of the correct granted in Part 3(b) of this License (the correct to make Variations) could be deemed to be a distortion, mutilation, modification or different derogatory motion prejudicial to the Authentic Writer’s honor and repute, the Licensor will waive or not assert, as acceptable, this Part, to the fullest extent permitted by the relevant nationwide regulation, to allow You to fairly train Your proper below Part 3(b) of this License (proper to make Variations) however not in any other case.

5. Representations, Warranties and Disclaimer


6. Limitation on Legal responsibility


7. Termination

  1. This License and the rights granted hereunder will terminate routinely upon any breach by You of the phrases of this License. People or entities who’ve obtained Variations or Collections from You below this License, nevertheless, won’t have their licenses terminated offered such people or entities stay in full compliance with these licenses. Sections 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, and eight will survive any termination of this License.
  2. Topic to the above phrases and circumstances, the license granted right here is perpetual (in the course of the relevant copyright within the Work). However the above, Licensor reserves the correct to launch the Work below completely different license phrases or to cease distributing the Work at any time; offered, nevertheless that any such election won’t serve to withdraw this License (or every other license that has been, or is required to be, granted below the phrases of this License), and this License will proceed in full power and impact until terminated as acknowledged above.

8. Miscellaneous

  1. Every time You Distribute or Publicly Carry out the Work or a Assortment, the Licensor provides to the recipient a license to the Work on the identical phrases and circumstances because the license granted to You below this License.
  2. Every time You Distribute or Publicly Carry out an Adaptation, Licensor provides to the recipient a license to the unique Work on the identical phrases and circumstances because the license granted to You below this License.
  3. If any provision of this License is invalid or unenforceable below relevant regulation, it shall not have an effect on the validity or enforceability of the rest of the phrases of this License, and with out additional motion by the events to this settlement, such provision shall be reformed to the minimal extent essential to make such provision legitimate and enforceable.
  4. No time period or provision of this License shall be deemed waived and no breach consented to until such waiver or consent shall be in writing and signed by the occasion to be charged with such waiver or consent.
  5. This License constitutes all the settlement between the events with respect to the Work licensed right here. There are not any understandings, agreements or representations with respect to the Work not specified right here. Licensor shall not be certain by any further provisions which will seem in any communication from You. This License might not be modified with out the mutual written settlement of the Licensor and You.
  6. The rights granted below, and the subject material referenced, on this License had been drafted using the terminology of the Berne Conference for the Safety of Literary and Inventive Works (as amended on September 28, 1979), the Rome Conference of 1961, the WIPO Copyright Treaty of 1996, the WIPO Performances and Phonograms Treaty of 1996 and the Common Copyright Conference (as revised on July 24, 1971). These rights and material take impact within the related jurisdiction wherein the License phrases are sought to be enforced based on the corresponding provisions of the implementation of these treaty provisions within the relevant nationwide regulation. If the usual suite of rights granted below relevant copyright regulation contains further rights not granted below this License, such further rights are deemed to be included within the License; this License isn’t meant to limit the license of any rights below relevant regulation.

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